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UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



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FORSYTH, A COUNTY ON THE MARCH 



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A COmi ON THE MARCH ' 



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CHAPEL HILLTME UNIVERSITY OP NORTtt CAftOUNA PRESS- 1949 



Copyright, 1949, by 
The University of North Carolina Press 

Manufactured in the United States of America 

VAN REES press • NEW YORK 

P.J. 



FOREWORD 



The year 1949 is the looth anniversary of Forsyth County 
and of its county seat, Winston. It marks the completion of 
a century of achievement in our community. 

These past 100 years have seen the birth of Forsyth County 
and the joining of the quaint old town of Salem in 191 3 with 
the newer industrial city of Winston. During this span of 
years our smaller towns have also flourished, and rural Forsyth 
County has assumed a position of leadership in the State. 

Dr. Adelaide Fries and her able associates in the writing of 
this book not only have given us an accurate history of our 
County but also have captured magnificently the energy of 
its founders, the surge of its new blood, and the cooperative 
spirit of its people. 

James A. Gray, Jr., Chairman 
Forsyth County Centennial Committee 






CONTENTS 



Foreword, by James A. Gray, Jr., 

Chairman Forsyth County Centennial 

Committee v 

I. A Fifth-Generation County 3 

By Adelaide L. Fries 

II. Colonel Benjamin Forsyth ^7 

By Adelaide L. Fries 

III. Around Salem Square 29 

By Adelaide L. Fries 

IV. Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 59 

By Mary C. Wiley 

V. Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 121 

By Douglas L. Rights 

VI. Rural Forsyth H3 

By Harvey Dinkins 

VII. A Center of Industry i ^9 

By Chas. N. Siewers 

VIII. Winston-Salem Up to Date i99 

By Flora Ann Lee 

The Contributors ^^9 

Index 231 



I 

A FIFTH-GENERATION COUNTY 



IMPROBABLE as it sounds, it is a fact that the pioneers 
in this immediate section of North CaroHna selected 
their land in Anson County, settled in Rowan County, 
and went through the Revolutionary War in Surry 
County; their descendants were in Stokes County during the 
War of 1 8 1 2 and the Mexican War, and volunteered for Con- 
federate service from Forsyth County— and yet the location 
never changed! 

The explanation is that the area which is now Forsyth was 
always in the piece that was cut off when a large county was 
divided; always it saw the other part of the county keep the 
name and the record books; always it was in the new county, 
with a new county seat, and a new set of county records. 

Behind this development there was a story a century and a 
quarter long. It began in the days when the kings of England 
knew that a large part of America had been claimed for them, 
but knew practically nothing about it— and cared less. So in 
1629 King Charles I gave to his attorney general, Sir Robert 
Heath, a large part of English America, on the condition that 
he take steps to colonize it. 

This was not done, and so the Heath title was declared 
void. Then, in 1663, Charles II gave "Carolina" to eight Eng- 
lish lords. Two years later he enlarged his gift, and they be- 
came possessed of the land from Virginia to a point half way 
down the Florida peninsula, and from the Atlantic Ocean "as 
far west as the continent doth extend itself," and neither the 
king nor the new owners knew how far that was or where it 
stopped. 

Gradually settlers drifted into the eastern part along the 
Atlantic seaboard, and a colonial government was set up. But 
there was little profit and much annoyance for the eight Lords 
Proprietors, as they were called, and in 1728 the heirs or 
assignees of seven of the original eight Proprietors sold their 
interests to the Crown and ceased to think of Carolina. 

John, Lord Carteret, Earl Granville, son of the eighth 



4 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Proprietor, decided not to sell, and his one-eighth part was laid 
off for him adjoining Virginia. The southern hne was placed 
at 35° 34' north latitude; the eastern boundary was the Atlantic 
Ocean; the western was still that unknown limit of the con- 
tinent. Granville set up a land office in Edenton, which sold 
land to settlers who wished to come into his territory; the 
colonial government issued land grants in the name of the king 
for land outside the Granville holdings. 

As the years passed, settlements spread inland from the 
Atlantic coast, and counties were organized and secured repre- 
sentation in the colonial Assembly. Then other settlers drifted 
down from Virginia and Pennsylvania to find new homes in 
piedmont Carolina. By 1749 these settlers had become suffi- 
ciently numerous to want a county of their own, and Anson 
County was erected, cut from the eastern counties by a line 
running approximately north and south from Virginia to 
South Carolina, following the watershed about half way be- 
tween the Haw River and the Yadkin River. It included both 
the Granville and the Crown lands. The deeds and grants made 
by the two land offices are the only remaining evidences of 
real estate transactions of the first four years of Anson County, 
for the Anson courthouse burned, and all the early records 
there were lost. 

Earl Granville never came to America, but continued to five 
in England. There he made the acquaintance of various leaders 
of the Moravian Church, and he suggested that they buy land 
in his section of North Carolina and establish a settlement 
there. At that time Carolina was an EngHsh colony, and the 
Church of England was the state church of North Carohna; 
so Granville's suggestion to the Moravians may have been 
influenced by the fact that in 1749 the English ParHament 
made a very thorough investigation of the Moravian Church, 
its history, its doctrine, and its episcopate, and passed an act 
giving it full standing in the English colonies, where, as in 
England, the Dissenters (all other Protestant denominations) 



A Fifth-Generation County 5 

labored under civil and ecclesiastical handicaps. Granville 
offered the land on the usual terms, namely, a cash payment 
and an annual quitrent forever, but waived the usual allot- 
ment of land according to "head rights" and told the Moravians 
to select what they wanted, and the number of acres they 
wanted, regardless of the number of settlers sent at any given 
time. 

In the later summer of 1752, in accordance with instruc- 
tions received from the leaders of the Moravian Church in 
England, Bishop August Gottlieb Spangenberg and five com- 
panions set out on horseback from Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, 
commissioned to find a suitable tract for the proposed settle- 
ment. They rode along the coast of Maryland and Virginia, 
crossed the bay to North Carolina, stopped at Edenton to 
interview Sir Francis Corbin, Earl Granville's agent, and set 
out toward the west, accompanied by William Churton, the 
Granville surveyor. The journey was a long and adventurous 
one. Spangenberg's diary gives many details. They ate corn 
on the cob with the Tuscarora Indians; were delayed by 
severe attacks of fever caught in Edenton; found no suitable 
land along the Trading Path; suffered in a snow-storm in the 
Blue Ridge mountains; lost their way; followed their compass 
back to civilization; and at last were directed by a lone settler 
to the land in "the three forks of Muddy Creek," a tributary 
of the Yadkin River. There they selected a tract of nearly one 
hundred thousand acres, which was surveyed as a whole and 
also as divided into nineteen separate tracts, the latter at the 
suggestion of Churton, who thought it might simplify matters 
if trouble arose over payment of the quitrents. 

Spangenberg suggested the name Der Wachau for this 
tract, because he thought that its hills and valleys resembled 
the terrain in an estate of that name in south Austria, an estate 
which belonged to the family of the Count Nicholas Lewis 
von Zinzendorf, who did so much for the Moravian Church 
of the eighteenth century. This German name was used for 



6 Forsyth, a County on the March 

many years whenever the Moravian settlers wrote in the Ger- 
man language; but they preferred the Latin form of the name, 
Wachovia, when they wrote in English. Naturally, it is the 
Latin-English form of the name which has endured. 

Traced on a modern map of Forsyth County this Wachovia 
Tract would extend from Rural Hall to a few feet north of 
Friedberg Moravian church; the east line would touch Wal- 
kertown; on the west it would be a series of angles west of 
Muddy Creek. The surveyor's rules of 1752 permitted only 
straight north-south, east-west lines and right angles. 

Spangenberg went to England to report on his journey, and 
while he was gone Anson County was divided by an east-west 
line, the south line of the Granville land. The Crown land to 
the south retained the name; the north part became Rowan 
County, with Salisbury as the county seat. The Granville (or 
Rowan County) line remains on the map of North Carolina 
in the south line of Randolph, Davidson, Rowan, and Iredell 
counties. The east line was made to run due north to the Vir- 
ginia line, instead of following the watershed. The west line 
was still the unknown boundary of the continent. 

It was into Rowan County, therefore, that the Moravian 
settlers came in November, 1753. The Wachovia Tract had 
been duly purchased from Earl Granville, and the original 
deeds were kept in England; but official copies, on parchment, 
certified by the Lord Mayor of London, with his great seal 
attached, were brought to America, and were recorded in 
Salisbury. 

The purchase of so large a tract, and the initial expenses of 
settlement, would have laid an impossible burden on the 
Moravian Church, already staggering under the expense of its 
rapidly expanding continental work and its scattered mission 
fields. It was financed, therefore, through an especially or- 
ganized land company, which worked very successfully. 
Shareholders bore all the early expenses, and each received 
two thousand acres of the Tract, certain areas being reserved 



A Fifth-Generation County 7 

for the proposed congregations. Of these shareholders only 
one, Traugott Bagge, came to Wachovia in person; his land 
lay at the northeast corner of the Tract, in what is now Salem 
Chapel township. The shares of some of the shareholders were 
sold for them through the years; others presented their shares 
to the Moravian Church, which sold the land as seemed wise, 
for the benefit of that church. 

The Moravian settlers who reached Wachovia on Novem- 
ber 17, 1753, found an abandoned log hut, and gladly used it 
as a temporary shelter. Finding good land there they remained, 
and there they passed through the experiences of the war with 
the Cherokee Indians, a sequel to the French and Indian War 
of the northern colonies. During those trying years a number 
of men, women, and children came to their stockade from the 
scattered farms outside of Wachovia; and at the suggestion of 
some of them the village of Bethania was begun in 1759, ^^ a 
distance of three miles from the parent village of Bethabara, 
which had grown up around the first little log hut. 

The Moravian settlement was the result of a definite plan, 
but the neighboring farmers had followed the more usual 
custom of the frontier and had taken their lands along the 
larger streams, the Town Fork of Dan River, the Yadkin 
River, and the smaller streams south of the Wachovia Tract. 
Best known among the men in the latter group was Adam 
Spach, who had made the acquaintance of the Moravians in 
Maryland, and who took up land as close as he could get to 
the Wachovia Tract in order to be near them in North 
Carolina. 

Gradually the settlers in Rowan County increased, and 
those who lived in the northern part of the county found it 
very inconvenient to be so far from Salisbury, the county 
town. They therefore petitioned the Assembly to divide the 
county. 

The Moravians by this time had founded a third village, 
Salem, in the center of their Tract, and they asked that their 



8 Forsyth, a County on the March 

convenience might be considered and that the new Hne should 
be run so as not to divide their land. Disregarding this request, 
the Assembly ordered the new line run at a point which was 
supposed to cut Rowan County in half, though it also divided 
the Wachovia Tract. The act was passed in 177 1, but when 
the line was surveyed it appeared that it ran between Bethab- 
ara and Salem, leaving the latter in Rowan County, while 
only a few small villages and the scattered farms fell into the 
new county of Surry. Amazed consternation filled the minds 
of the Surry County citizens, who did not see how it would 
be possible to cover the expenses of the new county without 
the Salem taxes, and for two years there was much anxious 
debate. 

During this period two other Moravian centers were estab- 
lished, both in the Rowan section of the Wachovia Tract. 
One group came from what was then known as the Broadbay 
Plantation in Massachusetts (now Waldoboro, Maine,) and 
they settled at what is now called Friedland. The other, an 
English-speaking group from Maryland, settled in what is 
now the Hope neighborhood in the southwest part of the 
Tract. 

In 1773 these two smaller settlements and the town of 
Salem became part of Surry County. The leaders of Salem 
agreed to join in the movement to place the county line six 
miles south of the line of 177 1, on condition that the Wacho- 
via Tract as a whole should be in Surry County. This accounts 
for the three offsets in the present south line of Forsyth 
County; a straight east-west line would have been an exten- 
sion of the south Hne of Lewisville township. 

The county seat of Rowan remained at Salisbury, but for 
Surry a new place was selected, which was named Richmond. 
It was quite near the present village of Donnaha, in the north- 
west corner of Forsyth County, and this was the county seat 
during the Revolutionary War. 

The story of Richmond was dramatic, but short, for in 



A Fifth-Generation County 9 

1789 Surry County was divided by a north-south line, and 
new courthouse sites were selected, Rockford in Surry 
County, and Germanton in Stokes County. The Surry County 
courthouse records were moved from old Richmond to Rock- 
ford; Stokes County set up new records on her own account. 
The area now called Forsyth was mostly in the new county 
of Stokes, but straight lines were still the custom, and the new 
line crossed and recrossed the Yadkin in an annoying fashion. 
As a result Stokes had a long narrow strip west of the river 
on the Surry side; Surry had a C-shaped tract east of the river 
on the Stokes side; and Stokes had a small triangle south of 
the river in the part of Rowan which became Davie County. 
In each case these detached pieces could be reached only by 
boat, for there were no bridges. 

In December, 1796, the Assembly changed the line between 
Surry and Stokes, giving to Surry the long narrow strip lying 
on the west side of the Yadkin, the river becoming the bound- 
ary there. The Act of Assembly calls it the land "south of 
the Yadkin," but old deeds show that for many years every- 
thing on the right-hand bank of the Yadkin River, looking 
down stream, was called "south" of the Yadkin, regardless of 
the actual direction. 

For fifty years the county of Stokes remained practically 
unchanged. The War of 18 12 and the Mexican War made 
but slight demand upon the people, though the former called 
the attention of the nation to Colonel Benjamin Forsyth. The 
population increased slowly, but it did increase, and finally the 
Assembly of 1848- 1849 was petitioned to divide it. 

The act dividing Stokes County bears date of ratification, 
January 16, 1849. The Act is printed in full in the Laws of 
the State of North Carolina passed by the General Assembly 
at the Session of 1848-4P, published in Raleigh in 1849 by 
Thomas J. Lemay, Printer— Star Ofiice. 

The act provided for a line "beginning at the South West 
corner of Rockingham county, and running thence West to 



lo Forsyth, a County on the March 

the Surry county line." It was further enacted: "That all that 
part of the said county lying North of said line, shall be 
erected into a distinct county by the name of Stokes county; 
and all that part lying South of the said line shall be erected 
into another distinct county by the name of Forsyth county, 
in honor of the memory of Col. Benjamin Forsyth, a native of 
Stokes county, who fell on the Northern frontier, in the late 
war with England." 

A supplemental act, passed at the same session of the As- 
sembly, appointed Caleb Jones, Frederick Minung (Meinung), 
and John Banner to run the dividing line, named county com- 
missioners for each county, and provided the necessary ma- 
chinery for setting up the two county governments. 

The commissioners for Forsyth County were Zadock Staf- 
ford, John Stafford, Henry A. Lemly, Leonard Conrad, and 
Francis Fries. These commissioners selected Francis Fries as 
chairman. 

It so happened that Salem lay almost in the center of the 
new county of Forsyth, and Salem Congregation owned about 
three thousand acres of the Wachovia Tract, includinor and 
surrounding the town. The act of the legislature ordained 
that not less than thirty acres should be secured for the county 
seat; so the commissioners applied to the Salem church boards 
for that amount of the Salem land. 

Opinion in the Salem Congregation divided sharply as to 
this sale. The conservatives feared the disturbances that would 
be caused by the sometimes unruly crowds that gathered on 
court days, and particularly objected to the idea of a whipping 
post, whipping being still the legal punishment for many 
illegal acts. On the other hand, the progressives feared that to 
place the county seat some four miles away would kill Salem 
economically, for a new town would grow up around the 
courthouse. 

The progressives won, and an agreement was reached 
whereby Salem Congregation agreed to sell the new county 



A Fifth-Generation County ii 

thirty-one acres, north of a stipulated line. Before the sale was 
concluded, the amount of land was increased to fifty-one and 
a quarter acres, the price per acre to be five dollars, the cur- 
rent price for unimproved land. The deed to this courthouse 
tract was dated May 12, 1849, and title was transferred from 
Charles F. Kluge, the proprietor (trustee) acting for the Con- 
gregation, to Francis Fries, chairman of the board of county 
commissioners, and his successors in office. 

It had been agreed between the parties that the streets of the 
new town should be continuations of the Salem streets, and 
that the courthouse should be erected at the highest point on 
the Main Street, but only two conditions were written into 
the deed. By one, provision was made for the school commit- 
tee of the district to have the lot on which a small free-school 
house stood. By the other condition, Thomas J. Wilson was to 
have a deed for his lot as soon as he finished paying for it. 

Until the new courthouse could be built the Salem church 
boards allowed the courts to use the Concert Hall in Salem, 
the county paying a reasonable rent for it. It was expressly 
understood that no whippings should take place in Salem, and 
that if any was ordered by the court it should be done some- 
where outside the town. The sheriff *'let out to the lowest 
bidder the furnishing of sawdust, candles, etc., for the Court 
at the Town Hall in Salem," at so much per court. 

On March 19, 1849, sixteen ''Gentlemen Justices, appointed 
and commissioned by the Governor of the State," met in the 
Concert Hall, and elected for the ensuing year: 

Sheriff— William Flynt; 

Clerk of the Court— Andrew J. Stafford; 

County Attorney— Thomas J. Wilson; 

Register of Deeds— F. C. Meinung; 

County Trustee— George Linville; 

Coronor— John H. White; 

Standard Keeper— Abraham Steiner. 



12 Forsyth, a County on the March 

All of the justices were entitled to sit in the Court of Pleas 
and Quarter Sessions, but they were permitted to elect a 
chairman and several members to serve for all. On March 20, 
therefore, the justices elected as the special court: Francis 
Fries, chairman, Philip Barrow, Andrew M. Gamble, John 
Reich, and Jesse A. Waugh. The finance committee elected 
consisted of C. L. Banner, Israel G. Lash, and Francis Fries. 

In December, F. C. Meinung, C. L. Banner, and Michael 
Hauser were appointed to select a site for a "Poor House"; 
and in May, 1850, about ninety acres were bought, three and 
a half miles northeast of the courthouse tract, on the road to 
Germanton. 

In earlier days the counties were divided into "Captains 
Districts," partly for militia organization and partly for tax 
districts. In 1869 the legislature changed the system, and under 
the new law Forsyth County was divided into townships, 
receiving names which are still in use. Perhaps the only name 
which would puzzle one who studies the map is Broadbay, 
which is a reminder of the generally forgotten fact that the 
first settlers there came from the Broadbay Plantation in New 
England. 

No attention was paid to the inconvenient western bound- 
ary of Forsyth County for a number of years, but in 1889 
the legislature transferred from Davidson to Forsyth County 
the land lying between Lewisville and South Fork townships 
and the Yadkin River, and this became Clemmonsville town- 
ship. This transfer obliterated a number of the angles which 
the act of 1773 made in the south line of Surry County, in- 
herited by Stokes County, and then by Forsyth County. 

One more angle was wiped out by the act of the legislature 
of 192 1 when a wedge-shaped piece of Davidson County was 
added to the south side of Abbotts Creek township in Forsyth 
County. 

Seventy acres of "forgotten" land belonging to Forsyth 
County lay south of the Yadkin River in Davie County, and 



A Fifth-Generation County 13 

in 1925 the legislature transferred this small triangle from 
Forsyth to the county in which it belonged, geographically 
speaking. 

This left the C-shaped segment, popularly called Little 
Yadkin, cut from Yadkin County by the river. (The southern 
part of Surry County had become Yadkin County.) In 191 1 
the legislature transferred from Yadkin to Forsyth a small 
triangle at the north end of the segment, in order to enable 
both counties to participate in the building of a bridge across 
the river. In 1926 the commissioners of Forsyth County 
agreed to buy from Yadkin County the land known as Little 
Yadkin. The legislature of 1927 altered the county line in 
accord with this agreement and authorized the Forsyth com- 
missioners to pay Yadkin commissioners the stipulated sum 
of seventy thousand dollars. 

After one hundred and thirty-eight years the river had 
ceased to run back and forth across the county line, and the 
Yadkin had become the boundary of Forsyth County on the 
west and southwest. 




II 

COLONEL BENJAMIN FORSYTH 



VERY little is known of the early life of Benjamin 
Forsyth, for whom Forsyth County was named. 
Family tradition says that he was the son of James 
and Elizabeth Forsyth. The date and place of his 
birth are not known, but he seems to have been born in the 
early 1760's, and probably in Virginia. The Forsyth name, in 
various spellings, appears in Virginia from time to time, begin- 
ning as early as 1 649, in which year a John Forsith was one 
of a group of forty persons transported to Virginia by 
Edmund Scarborough, Jr., patentee for two thousand acres 
of land in Northampton County. 

There is evidence that Benjamin Forsyth's father died when 
the boy was still young, and that his mother then married a 
man by the name of Whitworth and had at least one son, 
Edward, and probably other children. 

That Benjamin received some education is certain, for his 
signature to a deed dated in 1801 is much better written than 
many of the signatures of that day. 

Circumstantial evidence suggests that Benjamin Forsyth 
Hved in St. Martin's Parish, Hanover County, Virginia, before 
coming to North Carolina. Only two deed books in Hanover 
County escaped destruction during the Civil War, but in one 
of them there are deeds showing that between 1786 and 1788 
a Benjamin Forsyth sold one tract of land, bought and sold 
another tract, and bought a larger tract of 960 acres, which 
he still owned when his name disappeared with the end of the 
book. 

The Benjamin Forsyth who lived in Stokes County, North 
Carolina, from 1794 to the day on which he left for the front 
in the War of 18 12, must have come with money in his 
pocket, for he first appears in the taking of a deed for a tract 
bid in for him at sheriff's sale; and this purchase was followed 
in the same month of December, 1794, by the purchase of 
another tract for which he paid £260. 

For the next seventeen years Benjamin Forsyth bought and 

17 



1 8 Forsyth, a County on the March 

sold land industriously. The Stokes County deed books show 
thirty-four purchases. Of these, three were at sheriff's sales, 
nineteen wxre grants from the state of North Carolina, and 
twelve were for tracts bought from individuals. There are 

o 

forty of his sales recorded, which makes a total of seventy- 
four transactions listed. This is most unusual, for in those days 
many men did not trouble to probate and record their deeds, 
since sales and purchases were legal, and valid indefinitely, 
without registration. Possession of the deed itself held the title. 

The rapidity of this turn-over in his early years in North 
Carolina indicates that Forsyth carried on a land brokerage 
business. Sometimes he listed only a few acres for taxation; 
in 1802 he listed 8,000 acres. In 18 10 he listed 3,000 acres and 
7 black polls, his own white poll, and a lot in Germanton, 
which he had owned for some years. In 1 8 1 1 his taxes were 
"not given in," and then his name disappears from the tax 
books. Perhaps he sold most or all of his slaves and real estate 
before leaving for the war. 

In 1797 Benjamin Forsyth married Bethemia Ladd, daugh- 
ter of Constantine Ladd. His marriage bond is dated October 
4, and Christian Lash signed as bondsman. Christian Lash w^as 
a resident of Bethania, but in that year of 1797 he owned a lot 
in Germanton, and as he was a justice of the peace he and 
Forsyth had doubtless met at court. The tax books show a 
number of men listing lots in Germanton who never lived 
there, and the indications are that there was a considerable 
amount of speculation in real estate about that time and for 
the next decade. 

Benjamin Forsyth and his wife had six children: Elizabeth 
Bostic, born in 1798; Sally Almond, born 1800; Effie Jones, 
born 1803; Bethemia Harding, born 1805; James N., born 
1808; and Mary L., born 181 1. 

In 1807 and 1808 Benjamin Forsyth served in the Assembly 
of North Carolina as a representative from Stokes County. 

During Forsyth's earlier years in North Carolina the tax 



Colonel Benjamin Forsyth 19 

districts were also the militia districts and took their names 
from the captains commanding. His first militia service in this 
state, therefore, was in Captain Banner's district, which in 
1797 became Captain Blackburn's district. All men from six- 
teen to fifty years of age were required to enroll in a militia 
company and to attend muster and drill. 

Forsyth's first commission as an officer was dated April 24, 
1800, when he became a second lieutenant in the Sixth In- 
fantry and served in the army for two months. On July i, 

1808, he was commissioned a captain and assigned to the Rifle 
Regiment. The diary of Salem, North Carolina, April 29, 

1809, says: "Captain Forsyth came from Germanton with 
a recently enlisted volunteer company of riflemen, and will 
soon go to New Bern and from there to New Orleans. The 
captain wished to give his company the pleasure of seeing 
our town, and at the same time show us their new uniforms 
and military drill. They marched into town in military order, 
with trumpet and fife, and paraded and drilled in the Square 
in front of the boarding school." 

He was still a captain when the War of 18 12 broke out. 
His service in that war was all on the northern border of the 
state of New York, where he at once established a reputation 
for personal bravery and for ability as an officer. As a first 
exploit, in September, 18 12, he led a party which went down 
the St. Lawrence River in boats, landed on the Canadian side, 
destroyed a British storehouse, and returned with many cap- 
tured mihtary supplies. He lost only one man killed and 
another slightly wounded; the British, ten to twenty times 
as many. 

On January 20, 18 13, Captain Forsyth was promoted to the 
rank of major, and continued his career with dash, vigor, and 
enterprise. In February of that year he gathered a force of 
regulars and volunteers and went up the St. Lawrence to 
Morristown. At three o'clock in the morning they crossed the 
river to Elizabeth town, surprised the guard, and took fifty- 



20 Forsyth, a County on the March 

two prisoners, including five officers. They captured 120 
muskets and other supphes and returned to the post at 
Ogdensburg, New York, without the loss of a single man. A 
little later he was driven from Ogdensburg by a British force 
twice as large as his, but it was reported that the British suf- 
fered severely in their attack and probably lost three times the 
number of the Americans who fell. 

In May, 18 13, Major Forsyth was present at the capture 
by American forces of Fort George in Canada, and added 
greatly to his reputation as a soldier in the battle fought there. 

On April 15, 18 14, he was commissioned a lieutenant 
colonel for his "distinguished services"; but these services 
were not to continue long, for he was killed in a skirmish near 
Odeltown, on the Canadian frontier, June 23, 18 14. The 
American general had sent a small American party to attack 
a much larger force of British, with orders to attract the atten- 
tion of the British and then retire and so lead them into an 
ambush. Colonel Forsyth was in command of one part of the 
ambuscade, and when the enemy appeared he brought his 
troops out of hiding and gave battle. The British fired twice 
and retreated, but at the first fire Colonel Forsyth fell, shot 
through the breast. He exclaimed, "Boys, rush on!" and died 
a few minutes later. Next day he was buried at Champlain 
with the honors of war. 

The news of his death reached North CaroHna in due time, 
and at the September, 18 14, session of the Stokes County 
Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions his widow was appointed 
administratrix of his estate. Although Forsyth's marriage bond 
named the woman he married as Bethemia Ladd and the will 
of Constantine Ladd left bequests to his daughter Bethemia, 
who had married Benjamin Forsyth, her name appears in this 
court appointment as Elizabeth B. Forsyth, and she signed 
the inventory of Forsyth's estate "Elizabeth B. H. Forsyth" 
when she presented it to the court in March, 181 5. Family 
history says that her full maiden name was Oizabeth Bethemia 



Colonel Benjamin Forsyth 21 

Hardin Ladd, and evidently she preferred to use the first 
name instead of the second. 

The amount of personal property Hsted in the Forsyth 
inventory was not large, but it included $302 in cash, which 
was enough to support a family for two years with the scale 
of prices then prevailing. Also listed were fifteen "disperate" 
notes, which would have been worth over six hundred dollars 
had they been good. 

With the filing of this inventory the Forsyth name disap- 
peared from the Court records. No guardians were appointed 
for the children. No settlement of the estate was made. For 
some years Benjamin Forsyth had a small running account 
with the Moravian Church in Salem. This was kept in excel- 
lent condition while he was in the state; then part of it was 
charged off and the rest was gradually liquidated, with the 
help of the Salem storekeeper. 

The explanation of the disappearance of the Forsyth name 
appears to be that in the summer of 1 8 1 5 Mrs. Forsyth and her 
children moved to Tennessee. At that time many people were 
moving westward, and probably she went to Colonel Forsyth's 
half brother, Edward Whitworth, or perhaps to the Colonel's 
mother, for the Bedford County, Tennessee, United States 
Census of 1820 lists Edward Whitworth, aged "26 to 45," 
John Whitworth, of the same age group, and an Elizabeth 
Whitworth, "over 45," who may well have been their mother 
and the mother of Benjamin Forsyth. Listed with Elizabeth 
Whitworth is another woman, aged "26 to 45," who may 
have been her daughter. There is on file a letter from Edward 
Whitworth, dated December, 18 19, which says definitely 
that he was a half brother of Colonel Benjamin Forsyth. A 
certificate issued by a Methodist minister serving in Ten- 
nessee shows that in October, 18 15, Mrs. Forsyth and Sally 
Forsyth joined a Methodist "class" at Mt. Zion in the Guilford 
circuit. 

Four years later Mrs. Forsyth remarried. A letter dated 



22 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Harpeth, West Tennessee, November 30, 18 19, says that in 
the end of January of that year she, "the widow of Benjamin 
Forsyth," had married W^illiam Cowin, and that her son, 
James N. Forsyth, was a bright boy, but delicate. He was 
Uving w^ith them. 

If iMrs. Forsyth had remained in North CaroHna she would 
certainly have known at once of the action of the Assembly 
of 18 1 7, as told below, instead of learning of it only through 
a Tennessee newspaper, the Nashville Clarion, two years later. 

Representing Stokes County in the Assembly of 1 8 1 7 were 
Joseph Winston, son of Major Joseph Winston of Revolu- 
tionary fame, and John H. Hauser, Esq., of Bethania, both of 
whom must have known Benjamin Forsyth personally. Three 
years earlier, December, 18 14, the Assembly of North Caro- 
lina had honored Captain Johnston Blakeley, of Wilmington, 
North Carolina, and of the United States Navy, by resolving 
to present to him a "superb sword" when he returned from 
service. He did not return; so in place of a sword the Assembly 
granted to his infant daughter a silver tea service and appro- 
priated a sum annually for her education. Doubtless the Stokes 
County representatives thought that the state should pay 
similar honor to a gallant Army man, especially as he had 
entered the service from their own county. 

The county name, however, does not appear in the action 
taken. The resolution to honor Colonel Benjamin Forsyth was 
introduced by Mr. Elijah Callaway, of Ashe County. As 
entered on the Journal of the House of Representatives on 
December 18, 18 17, it reads: 

''Resolved: That the public services rendered by the late 
Colonel Benjamin Forsythe in the late war with the King of 
Great Britain are well appreciated by the General Assembly 
of this state." Additional resolutions appointed a committee 
to "ascertain what are the pecuniary circumstances of the 
widow and family of the said Colonel Benjamin Forsythe," 
and to bring in a suitable report. The committee consisted of 



Colonel Benjamin Forsyth 23 

Callaway, Hauser, Winston, and S. King, the latter of Iredell 
County. The Senate concurred and added to the committee 
Joseph Reddick, senator from Gates County, and Senator 
Atkinson from Person County. 

Four days later, that is, on December 22, Mr. Callaway 
reported that the "committee had ascertained" that Mrs. 
Forsyth's "circumstances are not affluent, yet there has been 
no representation made to your committee that they are of a 
description which requires the pecuniary aid of this legisla- 
ture." The committee had further '^ascertained that the family 
of Mrs. Forsyth consists of an infant son about eight years of 
age, and four daughters." Recommendation was made to the 
legislature that "they appropriate [blank] to defray the ex- 
penses of educating the infant son of Colonel Benjiamin 
Forsyth, who fell fighting in the service of the United States, 
near Odeltown in Canada, on the 23d day of June in the year 
1 8 14." It was also recommended "That the governor of this 
state be requested to procure a Sword and present it to the 
aforesaid infant son of Colonel Benjamin Forsythe, as an 
expression of the grateful sense they entertain of the gallantry 
and good conduct of the aforesaid Colonel Benjamin 
Forsythe." 

The House immediately adopted these resolutions and sent 
them to the Senate. They were concurred in by the Senate 
on the following day. 

Other representatives went from Stokes County to the 
Assembly in the following years, and nothing more is known 
of the matter until the letter which Mrs. Co win, formerly 
Mrs. Forsyth, wrote from Tennessee in November, 18 19, 
after she had read the resolutions in the newspaper. Her first 
letter remaining unanswered, she wrote again in May, 1820. 
In this second letter she said that she had five daughters and 
one son. The youngest daughter, Mary L. Forsyth, was eight 
years old. The son, James N. Forsyth, was born September 27, 
1808. The family was living in Bedford County, Tennessee, 



24 Forsyth, a County on the March 

thirty-seven miles from Nashville. She said that the son, 
James, was in poor health, probably stone in the kidneys, and 
she thought it might be wise to let him attend school in Ten- 
nessee for the present. "I have sent my children to school as 
much as my situation would admit." The letter was signed 
"Elizabeth B. H. Cowan." By the end of 1819, Forsyth's 
daughter Elizabeth had married Samuel Smalling and Sally 
Forsyth had married Lemuel Perry. On December i of that 
year George W. Gaboon of Blount Gounty, Alabama, sold to 
the sLx children of Benjamin Forsyth 109% acres in Bedford 
County, Tennessee, the deed providing that Elizabeth B. 
Cowan was to continue to reside on the place. 

Again there is a gap in the records, but in November, 1823, 
when James N. Forsyth was fifteen years old, he was brought 
to North Carolina, and was entered at the Academy in Hills- 
boro, John Rogers, principal. Bills on file show that he was 
outfitted with new clothes and furnished with books at the 
expense of the state, through the private secretary of Gov- 
ernor Gabriel Holmes. 

The young man entered the University at Chapel Hill in 
July, 1824. Again the expenses were borne by the state treas- 
ury, and in addition to the regular courses he took lessons in 
elocution in Raleigh. 

In 1825 the young man got into trouble at the University 
and was dismissed. Evidently it was nothing that others con- 
sidered very serious, for the Assembly of 1825-26 adopted a 
resolution: "That the Governor of this state be, and he is 
hereby authorized to draw out of the Treasury of this state 
the sum of $750, the same to be by him vested in some pro- 
ductive stock ... for the benefit of James Forsythe, the same 
to be transferred to the said James when he arrives at the age 
of twenty-one years." 

A further resolution repealed the action of 18 17 concern- 
ing his education, no longer needed because the young man 
had joined the Navy. It was provided that in case of the death 



Colonel Benjamin Forsyth 25 

of Forsyth before he became of age the investment should 
revert to the state. 

The amount named in this resolution is the same as the sum 
mentioned when a sword was to be bought for Captain John- 
ston Blakeley, and the investment doubtless took the place of 
the sword originally planned for the "infant son of Colonel 
Benjamin Forsythe." 

The stock, however, never passed into the hands of James 
N. Forsyth, for he was drowned in 1829, when the ship on 
which he was a midshipman was lost. 

During all the years it was the custom in erecting a new 
county in North Carolina to give it the name of some notable 
man; so it was quite natural that when the legislature divided 
Stokes County, in 1849, the members should remember the 
honors paid to the memory of Colonel Benjamin Forsyth by 
the Legislature of 18 17, and should perpetuate his fame by 
naming this new county for him. 




Ill 

AROUND SALEM SQUARE 




J>M de ScHWeiMlTZ; 



UNLIKE the story of Colonel Benjamin Forsyth, the 
early life of Salem is known, even in detail. The 
Moravian settlers in what is now Forsyth County 
were educated men, firmly convinced of the value 
of carefully kept records; so the ministers wrote diaries of 
what happened day by day, and the church boards had secre- 
taries who wrote into books the minutes of each board meet- 
ing. Not only did they keep these records for their own use 
and the use of their successors, but they preserved them so 
carefully that in Salem there is no break in the story from the 
day of its founding until the present. 

Salem, as the central town in Wachovia, was planned from 
the first purchase of the Tract; and the name of the town 
was suggested by Count Zinzendorf six or more years before 
it was possible to begin to carry out the plan. He probably 
chose the name because Salem means "peace," and he wanted 
peace, in its truest and broadest sense, to be a characteristic of 
the place. 

The Moravians had known much that was not peace. 
Founded after the Hussite Wars by followers of the great 
Bohemian reformer, John Hus, the ancient Unitas Fratrum, 
or Unity of Brethren, had known persecution after persecu- 
tion; and the members often suffered martyrdom as did Hus, 
who was burned at the stake in 141 5 because he would not 
obey the orders of the Romish hierarchy and give up his 
simple belief that men ought to accept the Bible as God's 
word, rather than obey men who substituted their own will 
for the divine precept. 

In 1722 descendants of members of the ancient Brethren 
emigrated from Moravia to Saxony and found refuge on the 
estate of Nicholas Lewis, Count Zinzendorf. There the 
ancient church was reorganized, and from there it spread into 
various countries on the continent of Europe and into Eng- 
land. The stake had gone out of fashion, but the opposition 
endured was not small; so there was a movement toward 

29 



30 Forsyth, a County on the March 

America, first to Georgia, then to Pennsylvania, and finally 
to North Carolina. The name "Moravian" to designate the 
church formerly known as Unitas Fratrum, originated in this 
eighteenth-century development, and it is appropriate today 
because it was through the Moravian branch of the renewed 
Unity of Brethren that this church possesses the episcopate, 
secured in 1467 and handed down without a break to the 
Moravian bishops of today. 

The Moravian settlers in Wachovia were trained crafts- 
men. Ministers, doctors, storekeepers, carpenters, masons, 
smiths, and numerous other handicraftsmen had been care- 
fully instructed in their respective trades and professions. 
Co-operation was the rule. The community of effort that 
prevailed when Bethabara was a small, frontier village was 
not carried over into Salem in a business way, but the spirit 
remained, and any man or woman who would not obey the 
simple rules of conduct which had been established was 
quietly asked to leave. 

Wachovia had been bought for a down payment and an 
annual quitrent. Before the Revolutionary War an agreement 
had been reached with the heirs of Earl Granville under 
which the quitrent title was to be bought by the Moravian 
Church. The Confiscation Acts passed by the North Carolina 
Assembly early in the Revolution extinguished the titles of 
absentee English proprietors; but in 1778 the title to 
Wachovia was transferred to the Reverend Frederic William 
Marshall, a naturalized citizen of Pennsylvania, and this trans- 
fer was confirmed by the Assembly of North Carolina in 
1782. As Marshall held the title in trust for the church as 
represented by the bona fide settlers in Wachovia, he thought 
that the contract to buy the quitrents had been nullified by 
the results of the war, but the leaders in England stood by 
their agreement, and the quitrents were duly purchased. 
Because of the quitrent system, however, little of the land in 



Around Salem Square 31 

Wachovia was sold outright at first. Much of it was leased 
until a later date. 

In Salem this lease system persisted for a long time; it was 
finally abrogated in 1856. Under this system Salem Congrega- 
tion leased land from the church as a whole, the Salem lot 
being about three thousand acres. In the town of Salem lots 
were leased to individuals. The "improvements" on the lots 
belonged to the men who built the houses, their rights secured 
by bond. This prevented random buying and selling, and 
enabled the church leaders to be sure that purchasers would 
be desirable citizens. 

The site for Salem was selected in 1765, after the surveyor 
Renter had carefully searched the entire central portion of 
the Wachovia Tract, and had noted a number of possible 
sites. The place chosen lay half way up the hill leading from 
the Wach (Salem Creek) to the Annaberg (Winston). The 
ground sloped in both directions, east and west, but there 
were several good springs to furnish water, and a clear little 
branch on the west (Tar Branch) to supply the immediate 
needs until wells could be dug. The town was high enough 
up the ridge to be safe in times of flood, when the Wach 
might, and occasionally did, rise to a dangerous height. On 
the other hand, in the still higher ground there were good 
springs which would make possible a water system when the 
settlers found time for that. 

Work began on January 6, 1766, when men from Bethab- 
ara and Bethania, with some others recently arrived from 
Europe, tramped the six miles from Bethabara through the 
forest and felled the first tree for a log house to shelter the 
workmen who should build the town. 

Plans for the town had been made in advance, and were 
designed to fit the ground. There was the main street, running 
north on the crest of the hill, with parallel streets to east and 
west, and cross streets at suitable intervals. One of the blocks 



32 Forsyth, a County on the March 

so formed was chosen as the open Square, around which the 
chief houses were to stand. 

Later in 1766 the first house was built on the main street. 
It was of "frame" construction, a unique method which per- 
mitted the use of the material available, not well suited for 
the buildings of logr houses. Heavy timbers were erected for 
the framing; then rude laths were wrapped in a mixture of 
clay and straw, and the laths were inserted across from one 
grooved upright to another. When pressed down they made 
a thick wall, as warm as brick. When the clay began to wash 
out after years of service the wall could be weatherboarded 
to become as good as new. 

When the first room was finished in this first house Gott- 
fried Praezel moved in and set up his loom, a forecast of the 
city's textile industry today. 

The second house on the main street was known for years 
as "the two-story house." The first house and others of that 
period were generally of one story, with a high-pitched roof 
and a basement. On the first floor of the two-story house there 
was the first meeting hall of Salem. Until it was built services 
had been held in one of the rooms in the small first house. 

The immediate preparation of a place of worship indicates 
the first of the purposes for which the Moravians had come 
to North Carolina— freedom to worship God in their devout, 
practical way. They had an inherited belief that religion was 
a personal matter between a man and his God; but they be- 
lieved also in a religion to be lived with and through every- 
day life seven days in the week. In Georgia the climate had 
been against them, and a number of them had died; the neigh- 
bors also refused to understand their position in several prac- 
tical matters. In Pennsylvania their concern for the conversion 
of the Indians had been misunderstood; and the community 
life of the early years had been severely criticized by those 
who reflected the animosity shown by certain parties in 
Europe. In North Carolina, surrounded by their own broad 



Around Salem Square 33 

acres, they made immediate arrangements for places of wor- 
ship, to which they welcomed any and all visitors who might 
wish to unite with them in the services. 

They made no attempt to proselyte. Service to their white 
neighbors was the second announced purpose of their coming 
to North Carolina, and they served freely without asking 
reward. Had they gathered in all the Christians in the neigh- 
borhood who were without pastoral service they might have 
swept the state, for they were organized here long before 
other denominations. But this they never attempted. They 
sought, rather, to hold the leaderless groups steady until 
pastors of their various denominations might be sent to them, 
a fraternal generosity which has seldom been understood. 

Before the year 1766 ended, two more of the small houses 
had been built just north of the first house. The fourth house 
is the oldest now standing in Salem. For many years it was 
occupied by Charles Holder, a saddle-maker; it now belongs 
to the Colonial Dames, who have restored it. 

The next year a potter's shop and a blacksmith's shop were 
built. Both crafts were of immense value to the town and to 
the neighborhood. When news spread through the country- 
side that the Salem potter had burned a kiln of ware, so many 
persons crowded in that sometimes there were not enough 
pieces to go around. Good clay was found in a meadow by 
the creek (now the Salem College athletic field), yellow clay 
for the making of kitchen ware, and gray clay for the pipe- 
heads, so long a staple of trade in Salem. 

Brick and tile were also made in that meadow, not by the 
potter but by brickmakers, for those were the days of spe- 
cialists in many lines. Salem did not import brick and furni- 
ture from Europe, as was done in many cities on the Atlantic 
seaboard. Salem imported men who could make furniture and 
brick and other things which the residents of a city needed. 
This made her largely self-sufficient in the days when the 
only means of communication were letters carried by passing 



34 Forsyth, a County on the March 

travelers or by special messengers; when the only means of 
transportation inland were carts or wagons. Some things, of 
course, were brought by wagon from Pennsylvania, or from 
Petersburg, Virginia, or from Charlestown, South Carolina, 
or from Cross Creek (Fayetteville), the nearest point to which 
things could be brought by boat. At those places deerskins 
and a few other local commodities could be bartered for 
coffee, tea, window glass, sugar, and other articles handled 
by the store. Books usually came from England or Germany, 
where Salem maintained a standing order for the publications 
of the Unity. 

The first really large building operation was the erection of 
the Brothers House, facing the Square from the west. This 
was the home of the numerous young men and bovs who had 
come to grow up with Salem, and there they had their work- 
shops, with their journeymen and apprentices. They had their 
own organization, their own finances, their own kitchen, 
their own farm; indeed, for many years the Brothers House 
was the industrial center of the community. They took pos- 
session of their House in 1769, most of them coming from 
Bethabara, where there had been a similar institution. 

This Brothers House was of "frame" construction— with a 
difference. In burning brick for chimneys there were often 
some which were not hard enough to stand exposure to the 
weather; so the second type of framing omitted the laths with 
the clay-straw wrapping, added a few more inside braces, and 
filled the intervening spaces with these softer brick, laid up 
without mortar. 

The third type of building came in with the erection of the 
Gemein Haus (Congregation House), for many years the 
largest house in the community. The foundation and the first 
story were of uncut stone, laid up with clay. The walls were 
made very thick, to compensate for lack of lime in the bind- 
ing, lime being very scarce and hard to get. The second story 
was of the second type of frame construction, and there was 



Around Salem Square 35 

a high-pitched roof, permitting several rooms on the third 
floor. In the course of time this building was covered with 
stucco, which greatly improved its appearance. 

The Meeting Hall was on the second floor, and for this 
Meeting Hall a pipe organ was built by Bulitschek, an organ 
builder who had come to live in Wachovia in the Bethania 
neighborhood. On the first and second floors, at the north 
end, there were housekeeping apartments for ministers of the 
congregation; on the third floor there were guest rooms. The 
south half of the first and third floors respectively was used 
by the Single Sisters (the unmarried women) of the commu- 
nity, for living rooms and work rooms. 

The Meeting Hall in the Gemein Haus was consecrated on 
November 13, 177 1, and on the same day the Salem Congrega- 
tion was formally organized, with the Reverend Paul Tiersch 
as the first pastor. 

The next year saw much moving from Bethabara to Salem. 
The community store was moved into the first story of the 
two-story house, and the merchant, Traugott Bagge, setded 
his family in the second story. Gottlieb Reuter built a small 
house for himself and his wife diagonally across from the 
southwest corner of the Square. Matthew Miksch rented an- 
other small house which the Congregation had built on Main 
Street and began to manufacture snuff, and smoking tobacco. 
Heinrich Herbst took charge of a tanyard just west of the 
village. Jacob Meyer and his wife took charge of the tavern. 
Other small houses were built, and by the end of the year 
most of the residents of Bethabara had moved to Salem, and 
life in the central town was well established. The financial 
board of the Congregation acted also as the town committee, 
performing many of the duties of a modem board of alder- 
men, building supervisor, supervisor of public works, high- 
way commission, and so on. A local justice of the peace 
guaranteed the enforcement of the civil code. 

Nor was public health neglected. Salem had a succession of 



36 Forsyth, a County on the March 

capable doctors, and only one or two poor ones. There were 
midwives, taught by the doctor. There was a volunteer nurs- 
ing staff, pledged to serve at regular times. The Brothers 
House and the Sisters House had each its own "sickroom" and 
sick-nurse. 

Alore surprising, however, was the early date at which 
schools were begun for the children of the community. There 
were very few children in Salem in 1772. Many of the resi- 
dents were the unmarried men and women referred to above. 
Most of the married people coming to Wachovia had left 
their children in the schools of the Moravian Church in Penn- 
sylvania. But the leaders in Salem were university-bred men, 
who cared so much for education that they arranged for the 
education of Salem children as soon as there were any old 
enough to learn their letters. There had to be two schools, for 
in those days it was not considered proper for boys and girls 
to go to school together; but schools there must be; so one 
for little boys was begun in the home of the master carpenter, 
Christian Triebel, and one for little girls in a room in the 
Gemein Haus, with Elisabeth Oesterlein as their teacher. The 
school for boys served a number of generations, and was 
finally discontinued when the public school system of the 
city made it unnecessary. The infant school for girls of 1772 
has attained maturity in the Salem College of today. 

The business of the store became considerable, and it was 
decided to build a new brick store on Main Street, opposite 
the southwest corner of the Square and across the cross street 
from the Renter house. When this was finished the store 
business was moved into the north half of the house, and 
merchant Bagge and his family took up their abode in the 
south part. The two-story house became the residence of the 
congregation bookkeeper and surveyor, Ludwig Meinung. 
The "skin house," a small house across Main Street from the 
two-story house, used by the store as a warehouse for deer- 
skins, was changed into a home for the Reverend John 



Around Salem Square 37 

Michael Graff and his wife, who had been living in Bethabara. 
The Graffs lived there until the death of the Reverend Paul 
Tiersch made Br. Graff the pastor of the Congregation, and 
he moved with his wife into the Gemein Haus. 

For the first thirty-five years of the life of Salem the most 
influential man was the Reverend Frederic William Marshall. 
He was the son of an officer in the German army, and had 
been destined by his father for that service. He had been 
trained to healthful living, prudent management of funds, and 
good manners, and had been taught to carry responsibiUties. 
Of good family, educated at the University of Leipzig, he 
would seem to have had a bright future in his father's profes- 
sion, but when he was about eighteen years of age he learned 
to know members of the Moravian Church, decided to join 
them, and did so, with his father's consent. All of his training 
stood him in good stead in his new life. He was in Wachovia 
on a visit when the site for Salem was selected, and he re- 
turned to make it his home for the rest of his long life. Offi- 
cially he represented the Unity at large, especially in real estate 
matters. He also held various local church offices; and his 
knowledge of architecture, gathered from residence in various 
parts of Europe and in Pennsylvania, was the controlling 
factor in the designing of most of the houses in Salem. 

It happened, however, that he was not in Salem during the 
earlier years of the Revolutionary War. He had been called 
to Europe to an important church synod, and the war pre- 
vented his return until 1779. This left the burden of respon- 
sibility on John Michael Graff and Traugott Bagge, who seem 
to have borne the brunt of it— Graff in congregational affairs 
and Bagge in poHtical and commercial matters. 

For six years Salem not only shared in the distresses of the 
country at large, but had many local problems to meet, and 
both may be noted briefly. 

Active trouble began in the early summer of 1775, when 
the battle of Lexington, in Massachusetts, stirred resentment 



3 8 Forsyth, a County on the March 

throughout the nation. News of this engagement reached 
Salem by rumor on May 8; newspapers received on May 17 
reported that there had been a "skirmish near Boston," and 
also that Parliament had declared the Congress meeting in 
Philadelphia to be in rebellion against the English Crown. 

The Moravian records give a vivid picture of the confusion 
that followed— mental confusion caused by uncertainty as to 
what should or could be done by the colonists who wanted 
independence, by a flood of rumors with which the Loyalists 
sought to arouse the adherents of the Crown, and by economic 
troubles which had resulted from high prices and fluctuating 
currency. 

The Moravians were divided in sentiment. They had no 
quarrel with England; indeed, they had many friends in that 
country. On the other hand, they were loyal citizens of their 
adopted country. There must have been many discussions on 
the best way to meet the situation. Bishop John Michael Graff 
handled the matter with rare good judgment and with sur- 
prising success. He begged the Brethren to refrain from 
discussion, especially with strangers who might misquote 
them. He "left every man free to act according to his con- 
science" in the matter of militia duty. Salem stood firm for 
freedom from military service and in willingness to pay the 
threefold tax in lieu thereof; the Broadbayers of Friedland 
took exactly the opposite position. Other iMoravian groups in 
Wachovia were more or less divided in sentiment. Graff's 
unbounded patience, tact, and ability, held them all steady in 
their confessed desire for Christian brotherhood. 

That hot-headed partisans could not understand them is not 
surprising. They refused even to listen to the plans of the 
Tories and thereby aroused their wrath. Their refusal to take 
the Test Oath angered the less intelligent of the Continentals. 
Fortunately the captain of militia in their district, Henry 
Smith, and Colonel Martin Armstrong were friendly and did 
what they could for them. 



Around Salem Square 39 

The congress which met in Hillsboro in August, 1775, 
authorized the first issue of paper currency without royal 
authority. This was followed by other issues in North Caro- 
lina and in adjoining states, and as it was fiat money it depre- 
ciated rapidly, throwing a heavy burden on the businesses of 
Salem and bringing them heavy losses. 

The year 1776 brought the beginning of demands for sup- 
plies for militia and Continental troops, a demand that con- 
tinued throughout the war. Salem was really only a small 
village, and how it was possible to furnish the large amount 
of everything that was furnished is one of the mysteries of 
history. Traugott Bagge, though he held no commission, was 
virtually a purchasing agent for the militia and the Con- 
tinentals, and was ofKcially certified as "a true friend to 
American liberty." 

The Halifax convention of April, 1776, forwarded to the 
Continental Congress its resolution to co-operate in declaring 
independence. Congress acted on July 4, and on the Sunday 
following receipt of the official notice of the Declaration of 
Independence, which was posted in the Salem tavern, petitions 
for the King were dropped from the litany read in the Salem 
church, and prayers for the American government were 
substituted. 

The Assembly .of April, 1777, passed a new militia act, 
under which all men from sixteen to sixty years of age were 
liable for duty, with no exceptions allowed for conscientious 
scruples. This, and the Confiscation Act of November in the 
same year, placed Salem in a precarious position, and all the 
rest of Wachovia as well. What might happen was uncertain 
until January, 1779, when the Assembly drew up a form of 
Affirmation of Allegiance which the Moravians were willing 
to accept, and on February 4 the men of Salem took the 
Affirmation before Justice Dobson. 

In April of that year Pulaski's Legion was in Salem for four 
days. They behaved well, but one of the soldiers had small- 



40 Forsyth, a County on the March 

pox, and this brought the disease into Salem in an epidemic 
which lasted until October. 

Frederic William Marshall and his wife returned to Salem 
on November 5, and on the 22 nd he took the Affirmation of 
Allegiance. 

The year 1780 was full of difficulty and danger for Salem. 
Trade and handicrafts brought more loss than profit. The 
currency fell and fell in value. Taxes were three times as high 
as in the preceding year. There was constant demand for 
grain and cattle for the troops. Fortunately there was a good 
harvest. 

Besides the never-ending stream of soldiers, many poor 
families passed through Salem, fleeing in first one direction 
and then another as the English and Tories swarmed over 
South Carolina and Virginia. All possible kindness was shown 
to them, though it increased the burden on the slender re- 
sources of the town. 

In 1 78 1 the war approached nearer and nearer to Salem. 
First came parts of Greene's army: ammunition wagons, 
which stopped to load shells; and the field hospital which 
stayed only one day but left behind the more seriously 
wounded men to be cared for by the Salem doctor, Jacob 
Bonn. Then came lawless militia, and the Wilkes men espe- 
cially seemed to delight in excesses of every kind, including 
personal attacks. 

Then, on February i o, came Lord Cornwallis and his army, 
chasing General Greene. The regulars made many demands; 
the camp followers stole a great deal, but on the whole less 
damage was done than might have been expected. 

The next few days were fairly quiet, but the days from 
the 15th to the i8th were "days of darkness and terror," to 
quote the Salem diary. More lawless militia, led by enemies 
of the Moravians, plundered the homes and business places of 
Salem and assaulted the citizens. 

The battle of Guilford Courthouse, on March 15, attracted 



Around Salem Square 41 

little attention at the time, because it was "another English 
victory" and Cornwallis held the field, while Greene retired. 
Actually it was the beginning of the end, for on October 30 
Salem heard that the English general had surrendered at York- 
town on October 19. 

Meanwhile General Greene had led his forces south to free 
South Carolina and Georgia, and the coming and going of 
soldiers through Salem continued, though as a rule their 
behaviour was better. 

In November, 1781, and again in January, 1782, the North 
Carolina Assembly met in Salem, both times failing to transact 
business for lack of a quorum. The presence of so many dis- 
tinguished guests taxed the resources of the town to the limit, 
but was of lasting benefit, for the Assemblymen learned to 
know and appreciate the men of Salem. 

At the next election Traugott Bagge was elected a repre- 
sentative from Surry County. He and Marshall attended the 
April, 1782, session of the Assembly, held in Hillsboro, where 
Marshall secured confirmation of his standing as Proprietor 
of Wachovia, thereby putting to a definite end all danger of 
confiscation of the Moravian properties. Bagge was appointed 
auditor for Surry County in connection with claims for serv- 
ices and supplies during the war, and with two auditors from 
Guilford County sat in Salem as the Committee of Auditors 
for the Upper Board of Salisbury District, beginning their 
work on June 10. 

On August 29, 1782, Bishop Graff died in Salem. He had 
led his people well and had lived long enough to see the end 
of hostilities and the prospect of peace. 

On January 20, 1783, the Preliminary Treaty of Peace was 
signed in Paris. The news reached Salem on April 19 and was 
received with joy. On July 4 the Moravians of North Caro- 
lina celebrated a Day of Thanksgiving proclaimed by Gov- 
ernor Alexander Martin and sang with fervor a stanza written 
for one of their services: 



42 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Peace is with us! Peace is with us, 

People of the Lord! 
Peace is with us! Peace is with us! 

Hear the joyful word! 
Let it sound from shore to shore! 
Let it echo evermore! 
Peace is with us! Peace is with us! 

Peace, the gift of God. 

The next twenty years were a building period in Salem, 
during which many of its large houses were erected. First 
came the Salem tavern. The frame house which had served so 
well during the early years of Salem, burned in the very early 
morning of January 31, 1784. There was no loss of life, but 
little was saved except the tavern clock. The town was much 
inconvenienced by the destruction of this house and at once 
began to rebuild, replacing the frame structure by a substan- 
tial brick building, with vaulted cellars. 

A large part of the material used for the new tavern had 
been prepared in anticipation of the building of a Sisters 
House; so as soon as the tavern was completed, plans for the 
Sisters House were again taken up, and this building was 
erected in 1785. In it the unmarried women set up an organi- 
zation which paralleled that of the Brothers House. All of 
the crafts followed by the women of that day found place 
there, and a special weave house was built and equipped. As 
most of the men who had been weavers had entered other 
business, this enterprise of the Sisters House w^as important 
for a number of years. 

In 1786 a brick addition was added to the Brothers House, 
which doubled its size. In digging the foundation for this 
addition a distressing accident occurred. One evening the 
Brethren were working on the excavation for the basement. 
Just at midnight a side wall caved in, burying one man com- 
pletely and another partially. The second recovered quickly, 



Around Salem Square 43 

after he had been bled— bleeding was the approved ''first aid" 
of that day. The first man, a shoemaker by the name of An- 
dreas Kremser, was rescued as speedily as possible, but he was 
so seriously injured that he died in two or three hours. There 
is nothing in the incident (except the hour) to suggest a ghost 
story, but the tradition of a "little red man" who haunted the 
Brothers House persisted for many years. There have been 
no reported appearances since electric lights were placed in 
the house. 

In 1788 lightning rods were installed on the more impor- 
tant houses. In 1790 a paper mill was built immediately west 
of the town by Gottlieb Schober, probably the most versatile 
man who ever lived in Salem. 

On the last day of May, 1791, President George Washing- 
ton visited Salem. He was returning from his southern tour 
and planned to remain only one night in Salem, but learning 
that Governor Alexander Martin wished to wait upon him he 
decided to remain two nights, apparently the only time on his 
trip when he did this. He occupied the northeast room on the 
second floor of Salem tavern and spent the day visiting the 
shops of the town and other places of interest. The records 
say that he was impressed by the waterworks, which had been 
built during the war, partly to give work to the Brethren, 
partly to secure permanent benefit from the constantly depre- 
ciating currency. He visited the school for little boys, which 
was told to continue as usual. As one awe-struck little fellow 
read from "Noah Webster's spelling book" the words, "A 
cat may look on a king," the President smiled and remarked 
to the teacher, "They are thinking that now!" He also en- 
joyed the music of the community, a feature of Salem which 
from the beginning has attracted visitors. 

In 1792 Salem was given a United States post office, with 
Gottlieb Schober as the first postmaster. 

In 1794 a house was built for the boys school. The first 
story was of stone, the second of brick, the roof of tile; and 



44 Forsyth, a County on the March 

the vaulted cellar room, the cooking hearth, and the large 
oven, make it an unusually suitable place for the present-day 
Museum of the Wachovia Historical Society, for it is itself a 
museum piece. 

A house for the home and office of the Salem vorsteher 
(treasurer of the congregation) was erected in 1797. It also 
had vaulted cellars and stone walls for the first story, with 
brick above. It required a minimum of remodeling in 1942 to 
make it a safe depository for the archives of the Moravian 
Church in North Carolina. 

From 1798 to 1800 all efforts of the builders of Salem cen- 
tered in the erection of the Church, a commodius brick struc- 
ture, w^hich is still the Home Church of the Congregation 
though the interior has twice been remodeled. It was con- 
secrated on November 9, 1 800, with a province-wide gather- 
ing on November 13, the anniversary of the organization of 
the Congregation. An organ was built for the church by 
David Tanneberger, of Lititz, Pennsylvania, though the case 
was made in Salem by Johann Philip Bachmann, who came 
from Lititz for the purpose. 

Two other events of 1800 deserve mention. On February 22 
Salem held a special service in the Meeting Hall in the Gemein 
Haus in memory of General George Washington, who had 
died on December 14 of the preceding year. In view of the 
slow mail of that day Congress had recommended February 2 2 
as an appropriate day of remembrance. 

On April i "it pleased the Lord to bring to a blessed end 
the life of our old, widowed, Br. Traugott Bagge, the mer- 
chant here." At his funeral ru^o days later the number of 
those attending was so large that the Meeting Hall could not 
hold them. He had lived to see prosperity return to the town 
and country that he had served so faithfully. 

In 1 80 1 a large brick house at the east end of the present 
Bank Street was built by Dr. Samuel Benjamin Vierling. The 
Congregation leaders thought that the doctor was erecting too 



Around Salem Square 45 

large a house, but after his death it was bought by the Con- 
gregation and has served as residence for a succession of Con- 
gregation officials. 

Three very different items mark the year of 1802. On Feb- 
ruary 1 1 there passed away the ''heartily beloved and honored 
Brother, Frederic William Marshall, who had served the 
Unity with great faithfulness for sixty-nine years, of which 
forty were in America, and most of them in Wachovia." 

Cowpox had recently been discovered in Europe, and in 
June the Salem people were inoculated by Dr. Vierling with 
this new preventive against the dread scourge smallpox, and 
very successfully. 

On October 31 the leaders in Salem decided that the re- 
quests of the past ten years should be answered, and that 
arrangements should be made to accommodate daughters of 
non-Moravian parents who wished their girls to share in the 
education given in the Salem Girls School, now thirty years 
old. The Reverend Samuel Gottlieb Kramsch was called as 
the first inspector (principal), and plans were made for the 
immediate construction of a suitable house, now known as 
South Hall of Salem College. It took two years to build this 
house but boarders and day scholars moved into it in 1804. 
Until it was ready the boarding pupils lived in the Gemein 
Haus, where the day school had been held since 1772. 

The third announced purpose for which the Moravians 
came to North Carolina was to take the Gospel to the Indians. 
Circumstances had prevented this until 1801, when Gottlieb 
Byhan and his wife were sent to Georgia to begin a mission 
among the Cherokee Indians. Springplace became the center 
of this work, which was continued by a succession of men 
and women from Salem until 1836, when the Government of 
the United States moved the Indians westward by force in 
order to give their land to whites. The sympathies of the 
missionaries were all with the Indians. They wanted to accom- 



46 Forsyth, a County on the March 

pany their flock, and when this proved inadvisable they jour- 
neyed independently and joined the Indians in their new 
abode. Ultimately the control of this Indian mission was trans- 
ferred from Salem to Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

In 1 807 two missionaries were sent to the Creek Indians on 
Flint River, in Georgia, but local disturbances rendered the 
place dangerous, and the men were recalled to Salem after a 
few years. 

Just as the War of 1 8 1 2 was breaking out, Lewis David von 
Schweinitz and his wife journeyed from Europe to Salem. 
In the days of sailing vessels the voyage from Europe to 
America was long and dangerous. Six weeks was considered a 
quick trip; six months was not unusual. Shipwreck was an 
ever-present possibihty. One of the most thrilling voyage 
diaries extant is the record that von Schweinitz kept during 
his journey to America. 

Lewis David von Schweinitz was born in Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, where his father, the Reverend H. C. A. von 
Schweinitz was serving in the Moravian Church. When 
the father was called to another position in Europe, he took 
his family with him; so Lewis David completed his education 
in Moravian schools in Germany. While teaching in a boys 
school in Niesky he gave much time to the study of the fungi 
of Lusatia, and in collaboration with Professor von Albertini 
published a beautifully illustrated book on the subject. This 
won for him the Ph.D. degree from the University of Kiel, 
and he is said to have been the first American-born man to 
receive a doctor's degree. 

In Salem he held the position in the church formerly held 
by Marshall and served with great ability. He also continued 
his botanical studies, and is sometimes called "the father of 
American mycology." In 1822 he was called to Bethlehem, 
Pennsylvania, where he died on February 4, 1834. His scien- 
tific works were written in Latin, and for them he signed his 
name de Schweinitz, and this form of the name was retained 



Around Salem Square 47 

by his four sons, all of whom entered the ministry of the 
Moravian Church. Two of them returned to Salem and filled 
important positions there. 

The War of 18 12, which so nearly terminated the life of de 
Schweinitz and his wife on their voyage to America, came to 
an end in 1815. The first news of peace was celebrated in 
Salem in the evening of March i with an illumination of the 
town accompanied by processions and music. The Day of 
Thanksgiving proclaimed by the President and Congress for 
April 1 3 was observed with more formality in Salem and the 
other congregations in Wachovia. 

In the earlier years of Salem the store served many of the 
purposes of a local bank. In July, 18 15, men of Salem secured 
a branch of the Bank of Cape Fear, which had headquarters 
in Wilmington. Named as agents were Charles F. Bagge, 
Christian Blum, and Emanuel Schober. Blum promptly built 
himself a house; and in 18 16 he became the active agent of 
the branch bank. For some years things went smoothly, but 
the income was insufficient for his needs, and early in 1827 
he established a printing office. In December of that year 
disaster overtook him. He was counting paper currency when 
it was time to go to the church and light the candles. Leaving 
the bills on the table he hastily blew out the lights, and so far 
as could be ascertained a spark must have fallen on the paper, 
for he had hardly reached the church when his table at home 
was a mass of flames. The fire was put out before the house 
caught, but an estimated $10,000 in currency was burned. 
It looked as if Blum would be utterly ruined, for the head 
office in Wilmington refused at first to believe the story; but 
a compromise was effected by Charles Bagge, and Blum was 
able to continue his printing business, though he lost his place 
as bank agent. 

At about the same time the banks in general were in finan- 
cial difficulties. Men who had bought bank stock on credit 
lost heavily when their loans were called, citizens of Salem 



48 Forsyth, a County on the March 

among the rest. The State Bank and the Bank of New Bern 
liquidated. The Bank of Cape Fear also touched bottom, but 
held on and regained credit. In 1847 a brick building was 
erected for a new branch of the Bank of Cape Fear at the 
southwest corner of Main Street and the cross street there- 
after known as Bank Street. 

In addition to his many other interests, Gottlieb Schober 
had become a Lutheran minister, having accepted ordination 
in that denomination in order to serve the scattered Lutheran 
congregations still without pastoral service. His field was too 
large for one man, and the Salem ministers often helped him 
by holding services at one or another place when he was busy 
elsewhere. One result of this co-operation was the establishing 
of the Hopewell Sunday School, in September, 18 16. 

Rippel's Church, or Hopewell, was about four miles south 
of Salem, and several of the teachers in the Salem Girls 
School, including one of Schober's daughters, volunteered to 
go there every Sunday and conduct a school, in which they 
would teach the children and young people to read so that 
they might read the Bible. In addition, the scholars were 
taught Bible verses and trained to sing hymns. The next year 
a similar Sunday school was opened in Salem for the benefit 
of the children of neighbors for whom there was no other 
opportunity for education. 

The young people of the Salem congregation did not need 
this early type of Sunday school. Reading was taught in the 
day schools of Salem, and religious instruction was given in 
the children's meetings held during the week. What is now 
the Home Moravian Sunday School was not begun until 1 849, 
and then more in the modern manner. 

On January 20, 1822, the Salem Female Missionary Society 
was organized, primarily to foster religious work among the 
Negroes, though also for the support of foreign missions. 
There were not many Negroes living in the town of Salem, 
but there were more on the neighboring farms. The Salem 



Around Salem Square 49 

board of elders therefore appointed the Reverend Abraham 
Steiner to take charge of the work, and he immediately began 
to hold meetings on the farms around Salem. Three of the 
older Negroes were communicant members of the Salem con- 
gregation, and around them a little Negro congregation was 
gradually assembled. The first church ifor them was a small 
log structure, consecrated in 1823. On March 4, 1827, a Sun- 
day school was begun there by members of the Female Mis- 
sionary Society. A new church was erected in 1861; to this a 
large addition was made in 1890, and the name "St. Philips" 
was given to it by Bishop Edward Rondthaler. The Female 
Missionary Society, which changed its name to the Woman's 
Missionary Society, has always maintained its interest in the 
"colored church." 

Dr. Frederic Schuman, who succeeded Dr. Vierling as one 
of the Salem doctors, was very fond of music, and tradition 
says that he trained the musicians who rendered Haydn's 
oratorio, "The Creation," which was given in the Salem 
church on July 4, 1829, and again in the church in 1833. 
Blum printed the libretto, and on one copy in the Salem 
Archives the names of the soloists have been written, so it is 
known that one or both times (the libretto is not dated) Dr. 
Schuman sang the part of Uriel in the first part, while Henry 
Shultz sang it in the second part; Frederic Christian Meinung 
sang the part of Raphael; and Antoinette Bagge the part of 
Gabriel. In the trio with Uriel and Raphael, A. E. Crist took 
the part of Gabriel. 

In 1836 a beginning was made in introducing steam power 
into Salem industries. As a result of stories of 15 to 20 per 
cent profit made by other cotton factories in the state, the 
Salem Cotton Manufacturing Company was organized, and 
the first general meeting of the company was held on July 9. 
Stock amounting to $50,000 was quickly subscribed by thirty 
stockholders, who paid $200 per share. An agent was ap- 



50 Forsyth, a County on the March 

pointed; a substantial factory building was erected, with the 
necessary other houses for employees; an engine was bought 
in Baltimore; spindles and looms were installed. 

During the early years business was satisfactory, but by 
1847 the picture had changed. Debtors were numerous, and 
so were creditors. The panic caused by the Mexican War 
made it impossible to collect debts. Cotton was high; the price 
of "domesticks" and yarn was relatively low. In November, 
1849, it was decided "to wind up as soon as possible." The 
larger stockholders protected the creditors who did not own 
stock, and took heavy losses. In March, 1854, the plant was 
bought by John Morehead of Greensboro. 

Morehead sold the property to Rufus L. Patterson, who ran 
it as a grist mill. During the Civil War it was again a yarn 
mill, owned by Robert Gray and Peter Wilson. Later it was 
bought by the firm of F. & H. Fries, and was again for some 
years a grist mill. The property (at the end of Cherry Street, 
on the south side of Brookstown Avenue) is now used by the 
Western Electric Company. 

While the cotton factory was sliding down hill Francis 
Fries was developing a wool mill on lot No. 103, on the north- 
west corner of New Shallowford Street and Salt Street 
(Brookstown Avenue and South Liberty Street) . Fries leased 
the lot in February, 1 840, and immediately began to erect the 
factory, placing it in the middle of the lot on the east side of 
the small branch which ran across the lot. A wood-burning 
steam engine furnished the power, and the first wool rolls 
were carded on June 17. Spinning was commenced on Octo- 
ber 31. Looms were added, and in May, 1842, Fries could 
announce to the public that he expected "to keep constantly 
on hand a good assortment of Rolls, common Yarn, Stocking 
Yarn ready twisted, and cheap Lindseys and Cloths of differ- 
ent colors, qualities and prices." By May of the next year 
"good, heavy Jeans" had been added to the hne, and became 
one of the most popular products. 



Around Salem Square 51 

On March 5, 1846, Francis Fries took into partnership his 
younger brother, Henry W. Fries, who had already been 
helping him in the mill. Connections were made with business 
firms in the North; and trade spread widely in the South. 
During the Civil War the Fries mills worked largely on the 
cloth used for the Confederate uniforms. 

Francis Fries died in 1863. His brother remained the head 
of the firm to the end of his long life; the three sons of 
Francis Fries became partners as they reached the age of 
twenty-one years. The property was ultimately sold to the 
Southbound Railway Company and the site is now occupied 
by the freight station of that Company. 

In January, 1852, the Fayette ville and Western Plank Road 
had reached High Point, and application was made to the 
Salem church boards for right of way over the Salem land. 
This was gladly granted, for the plank road was then a very 
modern form of improved highway. Wooden rails were laid, 
with planks placed side by side across them. It is said that 
the planks were not nailed down; so the road must have been 
a very noisy and very impermanent affair, but at least it kept 
the wagons above the mud. A Mr. Cooper was the engineer, 
and a committee was appointed to confer with him as to how 
the road would be run through Salem. It was decided to grade 
Main Street from the south corner of the Square to New 
Shallowford Street, the planks to be laid in the center, while 
the town would pave the rest of the street on each side. 

Fries wanted the road to turn west at New Shallowford 
Street and pass his factory; and when others decided that it 
must go "past the hotels" into Winston, he built a spur track 
on New Shallowford, meeting the main road a short distance 
west of town on its way to Bethania. The plan had been to 
extend it much farther to the west, but this was never done. 

After the Civil War, Mr. George Hinshaw wanted to buy 
a lot on Cherry Street which had been crossed by the road 
after it turned west in Winston. Former stockholders of the 



52 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Plank Road claimed that the land covered by the right of way 
had been given to them, but lawyers ruled that a permit to 
use became void when the purpose for which it was granted 
had ceased to exist. The Union Bus Station now stands at that 
point. 

Three other items may be noted that belong to the period 
before the Civil War. 

In 1 84 1 the Belo home was erected. Edward Belo was 
trained as a cabinet-maker, but he had ambitions to become a 
merchant; so he gave up his position as a master cabinet-maker 
and opened a small store in the house on the northeast corner 
of Main and Bank streets, originally the "skin-house," but 
more recently the home of his father Frederic Belo. The small 
store prospered, and Edward Belo bought the home from his 
widowed mother, who moved to the Widows House. He also 
bought the home of his brother, Lewis Belo, and in the place 
of these two small houses he erected the large house. His store 
occupied the Main Street floor; his family lived on the second 
floor, entering from Bank Street, and his clerks roomed on the 
third floor. The iron grill-work on the portico and in the 
fence and the three iron animals on the parapet beside 
the steps were made at his foundry north of town. 

In 1849 Stokes County was divided, and the Forsyth 
County commissioners bought 52^/4 acres of Salem land for 
the new county seat. Small as was the price paid, it enabled 
the Salem church boards to complete their payments to the 
Unity Administration for the entire Salem tract and so made 
possible the abrogation of the lease system in Salem in 1856. 

During the years various improvements had been made at 
the house which accommodated the girls school, and two 
additions had been built; but more room was needed, and in 
1854 the old Gemein Haus was taken down, and a large brick 
building (Main Hall) was erected in its place. 

Even this was not sufficient when the Civil War came. 
Parents in more exposed sections thought of Salem as a safe 



Around Salem Square 53 

place for their daughters. So many came that all available 
space was used and place for more was found in homes in the 
town. ''We have no more beds, but if you will furnish beds 
we will try to take care of your daughters," was one message 
sent to prospective patrons. 

Food for so large a group was a serious problem. Governor 
Vance sent sugar from captured supplies. Former pupils later 
remembered with some amusement the picture made by their 
dignified Inspector (Principal) as he bestrode a horse behind 
a herd of swine which he was helping to drive to town for 
the Academy table. 

The first volunteer company to go out from Salem was led 
by Captain Alfred H. Belo, son of Edward Belo. A flag was 
made for them by some of their friends, and the young ladies 
stood on the steps of the Belo home as they presented it to the 
young soldiers grouped on the pavement below. A few days 
later the company gathered in front of Main Hall, and Bishop 
George Bahnson gave them his blessing as they left for the 
front. Their flag is now in the Confederate Museum in Rich- 
mond, Virginia. Another flag, made for Captain Wharton's 
company, is in the Museum of the Wachovia Historical 
Society in Winston-Salem. 

Near the close of the war Stoneman's Brigade approached 
Salem. Stoneman and part of his force went to Salisbury to 
tear up the railroad there; General Palmer and the rest of the 
men came to Salem. A scouting party went out to see whether 
the troops were actually approaching, for there had been 
several false alarms. This time they appeared, the scouts were 
obliged to scatter, and most of them lost their horses; but 
word was brought to Salem and the Reverend Robert de 
Schweinitz, the Inspector of the Academy, and Joshua Boner, 
Mayor of the town, went out to meet them and to ask for 
protection for the School and for the residents of the town. 
The Inspector tied his white handkerchief to his cane and 
waved it as a flag of truce, but the soldiers paid no attention 



54 Forsyth, a County on the March 

to him, and he impulsively grasped the rein of the horse on 
which the General was riding. The General reached for his 
pistol, and (he never knew why) the Inspector exclaimed: 
"I am de Schweinitz!" In utter surprise the General put his 
pistol back into the holster, and said, "I had a teacher of that 
name when I was in school in Lititz." 

Perhaps because of this early and pleasantly remembered 
contact with the Moravians, perhaps because he knew the war 
was nearly over and did not wish to cause needless destruc- 
tion—whatever the cause— the General did give the School 
and the town the desired protection. Some stores were seized, 
much food was demanded by the soldiers and was prepared 
for them, but there was none of the ruthless destruction of 
property so frequently occurring in war. 

Reconstruction brought its own problems to Salem. The 
wool mill sent two men to the south to gather up the cotton 
which had been bought but not delivered. The railroad had 
been broken in various places, but the cotton which could 
not be brought to Salem was taken to the nearest seaport and 
shipped to the North, which re-established credit there. The 
method of purchase and sale by barter had continued through- 
out the war and could still be used. Most of the former slaves 
continued to serve the famihes which had been kind to them 
before the war. 

The Salem Female Academy suffered severely, for parents 
elsewhere were generally not in a position to send their 
daughters away for an education. The School, already ninety- 
four years old, took out a charter in 1866, giving it legally all 
the rights and privileges of a college. Gradually, as times grew 
better, the number of pupils increased again; the preparatory 
grades were dropped; the Academy and College were sepa- 
rated; and the Academy was transplanted into buildings of 
its own beyond the ravine, while the College kept the old 
frontage on Salem Square. 

Moravian Church finances were complicated by the serious 
losses during the war, which had swept away practically all 



Around Salem Square 55 

its invested funds. When the Reverend Edward Rondthaler 
came as pastor of Salem Congregation in 1877, he drew the 
leading laymen of Salem into church affairs again, and the 
members in general began to open their pocketbooks in a way 
which had not seemed necessary until then. 

As Winston grew, Salem men showed more and more inter- 
est in it and shared in the businesses established there. 

The town of Salem was incorporated in 1856, with Charles 
Brietz as the first mayor. 

The "Congregation of United Brethren of Salem and its 
Vicinity" was incorporated in 1874; the "Board of Provincial 
Elders of the Southern Province of the Moravian Church or 
Unitas Fratrum" was incorporated in 1877. Bishop Emil A. 
de Schweinitz, the last of the Proprietors of Wachovia, con- 
veyed to the respective boards the lands properly belonging 
to them, and the trusteeship, a century and a quarter old, 
came to an end. 

For a number of years Winston and Salem lived side by 
side, two municipalities but in truth a Twin City— as it was 
often called. The postoffices were consolidated by Mr. Philip 
Lybrook, postmaster in Winston, who saw in the increased 
size of the office an opportunity to give the citizens city 
delivery of the mail, and the name Winston-Salem was given 
at that time. In 191 3, by vote of the people, the two cities 
were united in government, as they had been united in interest 
for many years. 




IV 

GLIMPSES OF SMALL-TOWN WINSTON 



WINSTON, unlike Salem, was established with 
little planning for its future development. 
Indeed, the only planning for the new town 
over the line from Salem was the laying out of 
a central square for the courthouse and the extension as high- 
ways of the Salem streets of Main and Salt (afterwards 
Liberty) northward to Seventh and the laying out of cross 
streets east and west, also as highways. 

The pen-and-ink map of early Winston preserved in the 
Moravian Archives shows that the Winston of 1849 com- 
prised the territory included between Church and Trade 
(formerly Old Town) as far north as Sixth and between 
Main and Trade as far north as Seventh. 

This tract of 51 i/i acres, which for the sum of $256.25 the 
county commissioners purchased from Salem Congregation 
for the county seat of Forsyth, was divided into seventy-one 
lots, not counting the site of the courthouse. The first sale of 
these lots at public auction was held May 12, 1849, and Robert 
Gray bought the first, number 41, site of Wachovia Bank and 
Trust Company, for $465. On June 22, 1849, the second sale 
of lots was held. The purchasers at these two sales, many of 
them buying more than one, were Robert Gray, David Blum, 
Isaac Gibson, John S. Brown, J. Sanders, J. A. Waugh, 
Thomas J. Wilson, John Keller, D. Starbuck, Thomas Sid- 
dall, Thomas Ayres, A. J. Stafford, John Pepper, F. C. 
Meinung, John Masten, C. L. Banner, Christian Reed, David 
Cook, Joshua Bethel, Francis Fries, J. P. Vest, I. Golding, 
A. Nicholson, A. Vogler, Christian Hege, J. H. White, P. 
Hopkins, R. Walker, D. Collins, Henry Holder, S. Mickey, 
Edward Reich, J. Vogler, Jacob Tise, J. Ferrabe, Joseph 
Wagoner. 

It is of interest to know that before Winston was set- 
tled there was one dwelling on the site of the county-seat- 
to-be, the substantial, two-story home of Judge Thomas J. 
Wilson, at Second and Main streets. Judge Wilson, so the 

59 



6o Forsyth, a County on the March 

story goes, wishing to live in the country, obtained from the 
Moravian Congregation a lease on the land upon which he 
built his home place. This was evidently before the year 1849, 
for the deed to Judge Wilson from Salem Congregation, dated 
May 12, 1849, recites that T. J. Wilson lived on the site under 
a lease and that upon the paying of a reasonable and moderate 
sum ($133.00) he was to have conveyed to him the said lot in 
fee simple. 

The second house erected in Winston was that of Mr. 
Jesse Kennedy on Liberty Street near First, according to the 
statement of Air. Robert Gray (son of Mr. Robert Gray, Sr., 
one of the founders of Winston) , in his Fourth of July ora- 
tion in 1876. The first stores erected were those of Harmon 
Miller, Robert Gray, Sr., Sullivan & Bell, and William 
Barrow. 

The first mayor of the small town was William Barrow; 
the first police officer, Hezekiah Thomas, who in addition to 
his other duties was required to patrol the town at night, 
stopping at each corner and sounding his trumpet to let the 
inhabitants know that he was on his job and ready for any 
emergency. 

For two years after the erection of Forsyth, its county seat 
had no name. There were some who thought that it should be 
called Salem. As the courthouse neared completion, however, 
that idea caused dissatisfaction. So the Court of Pleas and 
Quarter Sessions, which had charge of county aff^airs, ordered 
that the sheriff of Forsyth call for an election to name the 
new town by popular vote. 

For some reason this motion of the court was lost, and it 
was not until the January, 185 1, meeting of the General 
Assembly that a name was finally decided upon for Forsyth's 
county seat. Colonel Alarshall, who lived in the Salem Chapel 
section of the county, introduced the bill giving the name 
Winston to the town. An act was passed, and on January 15, 
1 85 1, this Act was ratified. It was two months later that the 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 6i 

name Winston appears for the first time in county records 
when on March 17, 185 1, the minutes state that "Court was 
opened and held at the Court-House in the town of Winston." 

It seems strange that Colonel Marshall should have selected 
the name of a Virginian rather than a native North Carolinian 
for the county seat of Forsyth. It is true that Joseph Winston, 
for whom our town was named, lived for years in Surry 
County, later Stokes, but the first twenty-three years of his 
hfe he spent in Virginia, where, in Louisa County on June 17, 
1746, he was born and where at an early age he made a name 
for himself as an Indian fighter. In an expedition against fron- 
tier Indians he was severely wounded. Unable to walk, he 
was carried on the back of a comrade to a place of conceal- 
ment where for three days he lived on wild berries. 

About 1769 Joseph Winston moved from Virginia to North 
Carolina and settled on a fork of the Dan River, where, as the 
old records state, he might have a view of the mountains 
whose cloud-capped summits seemed within a squirrel's jump 
of heaven. 

During the Revolutionary period he was a daring fighter. 
At the battle of King's Mountain he so distinguished himself 
that the General Assembly of North Carolina voted him an 
''elegant" sword. Twice he represented his district in Con- 
gress; and when his section of Surry became Stokes, he was 
five times elected senator from Stokes. 

On April 21, 18 15, he died, leaving a large family; among 
his children were three sons born at a single birth. One of 
these triplets became a major general; another a judge; and 
the third, removing to Mississippi, became lieutenant gov- 
ernor of that state. 

Major Joseph Winston was buried in his family plot in 
Germanton, Stokes County. Much later his remains and his 
tombstone were removed to the Guilford Battle Ground, and 
placed where he had fought in the crucial engagement at 
Guilford Courthouse. 



62 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Of the beginning days of Winston no records have been 
found. The first mention of the town is the following item 
from the February 8, 185 1, issue of the People's Press of 
Salem: 

"Our young neighbor-town Winston can boast of the Hall 
of Justice, which stands out in bold relief— an ornament to 
the county and surpassed by few, if any, buildings of the 
kind in the State. There let Justice reign supreme. 

"Then comes the Prison House— not yet completed, rather 
a gloomy looking place. May the mere sight of its grated 
windows prove a terror to evildoers and its cells ever remain 
tenantless! 

"Several dwellings, store-houses, hotels, and a Church [the 
Methodist Protestant on Liberty and Seventh, present site of 
the First Methodist Episcopal Church] have been erected and 
in part occupied. Other buildings are in process." 

On March 22, 185 1, the People's Press again refers to the 
new town across Salem line: 

"A new Post Office," the editor states, "has been established 
at Winston, John P. Vest, Esq., Postmaster," and among the 
advertisements he gives notice that "the subscriber, John B. 
Panky, is determined to open an English and Classical School 
in Winston, his terms for the first five months being $15 for 
language, $10 for higher branches of English and $3 for lower. 
Outside pupils can obtain board in Salem for $5 or $6 per 
month." 

Board for Mr. Panky's "outside pupils" must have been in 
keeping with the cost of living in the community, for accord- 
ing to the market prices listed in the People's Press of the day 
flour was 7 dollars a barrel, lard 8 cents a pound, butter 1 2 V2 
cents a pound, eggs 5 cents a dozen, and chickens 6 to 8 cents 
a pound. 

Slowly but steadily little Winston grew, and on January 3, 
1852, we find editor Blum writing in the People's Press, "An 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 63 

occasional walk to our adjoining neighbor Winston never 
fails to impress us with the growing importance of that place. 
New and tasty buildings have been erected in 1851 and others 
are in progress. The citizens of Winston mostly display that 
neatness in the erection of their dwellings which strikes the 
beholder." 

Within the pages of the Books of Minutes of the first com- 
missioners of Winston, an item here and there helps one to 
reconstruct life as it was in the beginning days of Forsyth's 
county town. 

Book One of these records starts with the organization, 
April 15, 1859, of the first Board of Commissioners— William 
Barrow, mayor (who like the other early mayors of Winston 
received no remuneration other than grateful thanks for the 
time and effort spent upon the upbuilding of the community) 
and Robert Gray, H. A. Holder, Jacob Tise, Henry Renegar, 
N. S. Cook, Franklin L. Gorrell, and A. J. Stafford, commis- 
sioners, elected for one year. 

Problems dealing with the retailing of spirituous liquor 
within village bounds— the issuing of hquor licenses, the dis- 
position of drunkards, the appointment of constable and 
patrolmen to keep order, the erection of a calaboose— occupy 
a large place in these early town records. 

One of the first laws made by the commissioners. May 1 1 , 
1859, related to the punishment of a person found drunk on 
the street; he was to be committed to jail until he became 
sober and then he was to be taken to the whipping post and 
given not less than 15 lashes nor more than 39. 

Next to liquor, taxes, and the keeping up of public high- 
ways, the question most perplexing to the early commissioners 
of Winston was what to do about the dogs that ran at large 
on the streets, and the cows and the hogs. 

Winston's thrifty householders at this time raised hogs on 
their premises, and many of them were none too particular 



64 Forsyth, a County on the March 

in keeping them in their pens. Indeed, hogs-at-large became 
such a nuisance that at one session, December 27, 1871, the 
commissioners went so far as to appoint a committee to confer 
with a like committee from Salem as to the necessity and 
feasibility of forming a hog association of mutual interest to 
both communities. 

Characteristic of the spirit of the friendly little Winston of 
the 1 870's— population four or five hundred— is the resolution 
passed during the administration of Mayor T. T. Best and 
Commissioners Cyrus B. Watson, Edward Spaugh, J. S. 
White, P. C. Miller, and Henry Holder concerning one J. N. 
Mathes (of whom nothing can be found except this one 
reference to him). 

It seems that these officials felt especially grateful to Mathes 
for the interest he had manifested in town affairs during their 
administration, and so, leaving on record: "Everything he 
touches thrives," they passed the resolution that this co-opera- 
tive citizen be given not only a vote of thanks but a gift of a 
pair of breeches and a gourd— and to purchase this gift the 
individual members of the Board brought out from their own 
pockets the sum of $7.15. 

There was little to break the monotony of every-day life in 
early Winston. General muster, with the marching and drill- 
ing of village and county boys and men to the sound of fife 
and drum, through mutual interest drew together in friendly 
intercourse people of all classes. A "big meeting" at the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, corner of Sixth and Liberty, 
with its hearty singing and shouting, was also an occasion for 
old and young to mingle not only in spiritual fellowship but 
in neighborly companionship. But the outstanding occasions 
in the social life of the community were the regularly re- 
curring sessions of court, with the attendant crowds, noisy 
and good-natured, blocking the muddy streets, talking 
politics, swapping horses, crowding village stores. 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 65 

During court week everybody in the county came to town, 
and everybody in town went to courthouse square, not so 
much for the purpose of attending to legal affairs as to mingle 
with the crowds and have a general good time. 

On horseback, on foot, the people would come to town— 
in covered wagons bearing the trademarks of the Nissen or 
Spach Wagon Works of Waughtown,— with fresh eggs, kegs 
of butter, beeswax, dried fruit, to barter at village stores for 
shoes and dishpans and dress materials, all packed in with the 
women and children and family dogs. 

If from a distance, the families in wagons would come pre- 
pared to camp out at night in the vacant lot where now stands 
the O'Hanlon Building, their gay patch quilts on the wagon 
seats, their frying pans, huge tin coffee pots, and lanterns 
swinging on the backs of the wagons. 

In 1854 the Plank Road from Fayetteville to Bethania was 
completed, passing through Winston where now a narrow 
alley from Liberty to Trade separates the tall stores on either 
side. The coming in of the stage coach along the Plank Road, 
with the driver announcing his arrival by shrill blasts from his 
tin horn, caused housewives to run to their doors, craftsmen 
and merchants and attorneys-at-law to lay aside their tasks. 

In the 1850's party spirit ran high in our community. For 
the purpose of boosting General Winfield Scott for the presi- 
dency of the United States and William A. Graham of North 
Carolina for his running mate, the Whigs of Winston and of 
Salem formed the Chippewa Club, which every Monday 
night during the campaign met in the courthouse for fiery 
Whig speeches interspersed with enlivening strains from the 
Salem Brass Band. 

On October 23, 1852, the Chippewas had a great Scott and 
Graham Day. By ten in the morning the streets were thronged 
—loyal Whigs came not only from all parts of Forsyth and 
Stokes but from Guilford and Davidson and Randolph. 



66 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Amid the firing of cannons, the procession under Chief 
Marshal Colonel Matthias Masten and his associate marshals— 
R. W. Wharton, Dr. Samuel Martin, Edwin Leight, A. Staub, 
Matthew Boner— and headed by the Salem Brass Band in their 
chariot drawn by four richly caparisoned horses, slowly 
moved in solid columns, with banners and flags waving, from 
Salem Tavern up Main Street to the courthouse. 

"From windows and balconies," the Weekly Press tells 
us, "ladies waved their handkerchiefs, betokening that their 
cheers and smiles were for the Old Hero of Lunday's Lane. 
The enthusiastic multitude in response burst into shout after 
shout for The Ladies! Scott and Graham! 

"At the Courthouse there was great speaking; the elector 
for the district, Ralph Gorrell, Esq. of Guilford, enhancing 
the attention of the audience for two hours in a peculiarly 
argumentative speech." 

Then came the barbecue— 3,000 pounds of meat with great 
bowls of steaming soup and other good things in proportion 
spread on long tables in the Square. 

Speech-making followed the barbecue until sundown, and 
then, after a short intermission for supper, the hearty Whigs 
reassembled for more speeches until far into the night. 

When in 1861 the call came for volunteers for the Con- 
federate cause, the Winston men and boys of military age 
began at once to prepare for military service; they were for- 
tunate in having as their drill master a fellow citizen who in 
the Mexican War had served under General Taylor— the 
"patriotic and indefatigable Colonel Joseph Masten." In June, 
1 86 1, the three local companies of Winston and Salem and 
Forsyth volunteers— the Forsyth Rifles under Captain Alfred 
H. Belo, the Forsyth Greys under Captain Rufus Wharton, 
the "stout and able-bodied men" of Captain Frank P. Miller's 
Company— left to join the army assembling in Virginia. 

Only once during the fierce struggle between the North 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 67 

and the South was Winston invaded by enemy troops. On 
April 10, 1865, three thousand cavalrymen under General 
Palmer of Stoneman's Brigade passed through the town and 
encamped for the night beyond Salem Creek. 

When a day or two before this there had come rumors 
that Stoneman's Brigade, which had done much harm to the 
countryside to the west and northwest, was on the march 
toward Winston and Salem, there was great excitement in the 
county town. There was no way to protect the courthouse 
and its records; the young men of the village had marched 
off to war or returned crippled or disabled by wounds and 
lack of proper nourishment. 

From the official report of Clerk of Court John Blackburn 
we learn of the state of affairs when at length the men on the 
lookout for the enemy came dashing back from Liberty to 
the Square with word that the dreaded invaders had actually 
appeared on the outskirts of the town. 

In his graphic way. Clerk of Court Blackburn makes us see 
his nervous haste as, searching through his records in the un- 
guarded courthouse, he tumbles the most valuable of the 
papers into a sack, and with sack over his shoulders, journals 
and minute books under his arm, rushes out of the building 
across the street to the Widow Long's house to deposit with 
her the sack, and then on to Mrs. Emily Webb's and to 
Franklin L. Gorrell's with his other documents. 

His papers off his mind, the Clerk of Court joined the 
Salem delegation, going northward up Liberty, white hand- 
kerchiefs in hand, to surrender to the oncoming host the key 
of their town. 

The Salem delegation was composed of the principal of 
Salem Academy, the Reverend Robert de Schweinitz; Mr. 
R. L. Patterson; and the Mayor of Salem, Joshua Boner; with 
this group was Mayor Thomas J. Wilson of Winston. 

Clerk Blackburn in his graphic style makes us feel the tense- 



68 Forsyth, a County on the March 

ness in the air, the long waiting for the enemy; and then as 
General Palmer and his staff appear, he makes us see the wav- 
ing of the white handkerchiefs, the response of the Yankee 
officer. 

"One of our company," writes Blackburn, "introduced 
himself to General Palmer and then introduced the others to 
him, and he introduced us to several of his officers and invited 
us to accom.pany him into town. 

"Which we did," he concludes. 

The events which took place in our community during the 
summer of the Surrender, we would never have known had 
not the Moravians kept accurate records in their congrega- 
tional diaries and memorabilia of 1865. 

From these sources we learn that on Sunday afternoon 
May 14, 1865, several hundred troops of the Ohio Volunteer 
Cavalry under a Colonel Saunderson arrived in Winston to 
take military charge of Winston and Salem; on July 13, 1865, 
they departed. 

The Federals set up camp on what is now the R. J. Rey- 
nolds parking lot behind City Hall and the adjacent (then) 
vacant property to the south as far perhaps as Belews Street, 
Salem. The officers, according to Salem Diary, took residence 
in the homes of Mr. Joseph Lineback and Air. Edward Hege, 
of Salem, and (according to another authentic source of in- 
formation) in the home of Judge D. H. Starbuck, present site 
of City Hall. 

As to conditions under military rule, the Salem Diary gives 
the following hints: 

''May 25, 186^. One of the Federal soldiers was killed today 
by the accidental discharge of a pistol in the hands of a 
drunken comrade. 

''July 2. The heat is unusually great and diseases begin to 
show themselves. Dead horses are not removed sufficiently far 
from town by the soldiers and spread a very unpleasant and 
unhealthy smell. 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 69 

''July 75. On Monday the soldiers had been paid off and 
since then many had not seen a sober moment. Though 
professing to be the friends and liberators of the colored 
people, they treated some of them with inhuman barbarity. 
The officers were, with a very few honorable exceptions, 
extremely immoral men and the privates followed suit. Their 
influence upon the community was evil and only evil and that 
continually." (This last entry seems to have been written after 
the departure of the troops.) 

The sound of the horn on February 14, 1872, for the open- 
ing of Major T. J. Brown's warehouse (an old stable on Lib- 
erty near Fifth converted into a warehouse) for the first sale 
of leaf tobacco in Winston marked the beginning of a new 
era in the history of the town. 

Before this time the sale of dried fruit and berries had been 
the main source of ready money for the village— the yearly 
sales at one store alone, that of Pfohl and Stockton, Main 
Street facing west and Third Street, amounting to more than 
$50,000. For years after the sale and manufacture of tobacco 
became the chief industry of the town, the buying and selling 
of dried fruit continued to be profitable. The late Bishop 
Edward Rondthaler, who came to Winston-Salem in 1877, 
when asked toward the close of his life, by a news reporter, 
what had impressed him most in passing through Winston for 
the first time, replied that it was the evidence of big business 
done in dried fruit— the sight of boxes and boxes on the streets 
filled with dried fruit waiting to be shipped by train and 
wagon. 

Soon after Major Brown opened the first warehouse in 
Winston, there was so much tobacco "rolled in" to the vicinity 
of the warehouse that the town commissioners had to pass 
an ordinance forbidding this way of conveying barrels and 
hogsheads of tobacco along village streets. 

At this time and for years afterwards the streets of Winston 
were ungraded and unpaved, and it was no unusual sight to 



70 Forsyth, a County on the March 

see the horses drawing covered wagons of tobacco or dried 
fruit floundering in the mud and the wagons mired up to the 
hub. 

Between the present site of the Charles store and the State 
Theatre there was a ravine so deep that anyone standing on 
Liberty Street near Seventh could watch a covered wagon, 
going south on Liberty, disappear as it dipped into Fifth 
Street and then slowly reappear as it came up on the other 
side of the cross street. 

Another deep ravine extended across the street at the cor- 
ner of Trade and Fourth, opposite where now the Anchor 
Store is located; at this point pedestrians had to cross the 
street on a foot-log over a running stream fifteen feet below. 

From the O'Hanlon corner, at Fourth and Liberty, the 
street descended sharply to Trade and from Trade it sharply 
ascended to Cherry. 

The lack of street lamps after sundown added greatly to 
the inconvenience of pedestrians and the danger of driving 
after dark. When in January, 1878, the town commissioners 
gave the order for eleven new kerosene street lamps to be put 
up. Editor Goslen of the Uiiion Republican declared in his 
January 17 issue: "We think it will take not eleven more new 
lamps but 1,400 more to light up the town sufficiently enough 
for a person to see how to get out of the mud." 

However, the placing of additional street lamps seems not 
to have solved the light question of early Winston, for even 
after the coming in of the railroad, freight continued to be so 
irregular that often the town, sometimes for a week at a time, 
was without kerosene for public or private use. 

On Saturday afternoon, July 11, 1873, the first train 
crossed the high trestle, 320 feet long and 70 feet high— at the 
time the highest bridge of its kind in the state-onto the tracks 
leading to the tiny railroad station, site of the present freight 
depot. The whole town, black and white, old and young, had 
trudged down to the banks of Salem Creek and to the near-by 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 71 

hills to watch, with the assembled throngs from Salem, the 
passing of the iron horse over the high bridge. 

At the first signs of the black smoke of the "harnessed 
steam," the Salem Band burst into strains of welcome, and as 
with a roar the noisy visitant to the quiet bounds of the 
Moravian town approached the trestle and in safety passed 
from one end to the other, the expectant crowds mingled their 
shouts with the triumphant blast of the brass horns. 

Commemorating the looth anniversary of American inde- 
pendence, Winston together with Salem had a grand and 
glorious celebration on July 4, 1876. 

At the dawn of day the sleepy dwellers of the towns were 
awakened by the music of tin horns, pans, and bells as small 
boys paraded the streets. Then, as the sun arose, a salute of 
thirteen guns was fired and for half an hour the bells from 
every church, factory, and the courthouse pealed forth their 
joyous notes. At nine o'clock the procession began moving 
from Courthouse Square southward along Main Street. 

Preceded by the Salem Brass Band came three colorful 
floats. The first, a car drawn by six horses, containing thirteen 
girls, beautifully adorned, represented the thirteen original 
states. The second, an immense car drawn by ten horses, con- 
tained girls who in their distinctive costumes represented the 
various states comprising the Union in 1876. The third, 
drawn by four horses, bore the Goddess of Liberty, supported 
on each side by a girl, appropriately draped, representing the 
products of North Carolina. 

On Salem Square the patriotic exercises were held. Colonel 
R. L. Patterson made the anniversary address, and Robert 
Gray, Esq., of Raleigh, a son of Robert Gray, Sr., one of the 
founders of Winston, reviewed in fine literary style the his- 
tory of Salem and of Winston. 

At 2:30 in the afternoon there was another parade— a fan- 
tastic parade as it was called— of sixty young men dressed as 
oddities, from gypsies to Indians, from the elephant accom- 



72 Forsyth, a County on the March 

panying a John Robinson show to the traveling menagerie of 
a second P. T. Bamum. 

After nightfall, with a grand display of fireworks on 
Cherry Street, Winston, the glorious and long-to-be-remem- 
bered Fourth of July celebration ended. 

Winston from its very earliest days was a church-going 
community, the Methodist outnumbering the other denom- 
inations. The first Methodist prayer meeting of which any 
record has been preserved was held in the early 1 840's in the 
old Nading home at the extreme end of what is now North 
Liberty Street but, in the 1 840's, was the tiny village of 
Liberty. This prayer meeting was conducted by the pioneer 
Methodist preachers of this section, the Reverend John Al- 
spaugh, the Reverend Alfred Norman, whose son the Rev- 
erend W. C. Norman forty-odd years later became pastor of 
Old Centenary on Liberty and Sixth, and by Mr. Lewis 
Rights, who afterwards became a Moravian minister. 

The first church edifice erected in Winston was the Prot- 
estant Methodist (now the First Methodist Church) on 
Liberty and Seventh. As early as 1 842 the Protestant Method- 
ists were worshipping as a congregation in a small log house 
in the scattered settlement known as Liberty; when Forsyth 
County was erected, the congregation purchased the Liberty 
lot in the county seat, and in 1850 built on this lot a neat 
frame church. In 1876 this frame church building was moved 
to the back of the property, facing Old Town Road (now 
Trade Street), and a brick building was erected at the cost 
of $3,500. 

It is of interest to know that this first church edifice became 
a tobacco factory, the pioneer tobacconists C. J. Ogburn and 
W. P. Hill for years carrying on their manufacture of plug 
tobacco in the building located on Old Town and Seventh 
streets. 

The Methodist Episcopal denomination built the second 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 73 

church in Winston. It was formerly the custom for this de- 
nomination to form first a society and then from the society 
organize a church. The Methodist Episcopal Church of 
Winston had its beginning in a society known as the "Mul- 
berry Tree Society," so called because the "big meetings" of 
the Society were held in the open under a large mulberry tree 
(in the neighborhood of the Children's Home) . In time this 
Mulberry Tree Society expanded into the Old Jerusalem 
Church, the house of worship being a stout frame building 
on a hill not so far from the historic mulberry tree. When 
Forsyth County was erected, the congregation sold the Jeru- 
salem Church property and with the proceeds of the sale of 
the land and the sale of the lumber, which was hauled to 
Winston, purchased a lot for the sum of $79.25, in Winston, 
at the corner of Liberty and Sixth, and began the building of 
a simple, unpretentious house of worship which in time was 
replaced by the handsome Old Centenary Church. 

It was quite an undertaking for the small group from the 
Old Jerusalem Church and the handful of the denomination 
residing in the village to build their Winston church. Under 
the leadership of the zealous and indefatigable pastor of the 
congregation, the Reverend W. W. Albea, affectionately 
called Uncle Albea, and through the "constant support, aid, 
and encouragement" of Mr. Robert Gray and Mr. John 
Sanders, both of whom were among the first to establish 
themselves in business in the county town, the congregation 
would build awhile and then when their funds were ex- 
hausted, they would stop building operations, give again to 
the limit of their individual ability, solicit gifts from their 
friends, and start building again. 

It was a great day when finally the small church was com- 
pleted and the congregation gathered for the dedication. Dr. 
Charles F. Deems, who later became founder and pastor of 
the Church of the Strangers, New York City, preached the 



74 Forsyth, a County on the March 

sermon. Dr. Deems was a small man and in order to be seen 
above the pulpit, he had to stand on a box placed behind the 
pulpit. 

\\'hile the Methodist Episcopal Church was in process of 
building, the congregation worshipped in the courthouse. In 
the early days of Winston it was customary for the various 
denominations, before the erection of their church edifices, to 
hold preaching services in the courthouse. 

In i860 the Reverend Frontis H. Johnston, at the solicita- 
tion of Judge Thomas J. Wilson and Mr. Hezekiah D. Lott, 
began holding, every month or so, preaching services in the 
courthouse for the four or five Presbyterians in the commu- 
nity and their interested friends. 

Judge Wilson was not, at this time, a Presbyterian, but 
through the reading of the Bible, the study of history, and 
occasional attendance on Presbyterian preaching while on 
his circuit, he had become convinced that a church holding 
the Presbyterian doctrine was needed in the growing county 
seat of Forsyth. 

And it was in the parlor of the young lawyer's home. Sec- 
ond and Main streets, that the Presbyterian Church of Win- 
ston, the first church of this faith in the county, was con- 
stituted, as the records say, on Saturday, October 5, 1862, 
with eight charter members: Mr. and Mrs. Franklin L. Gor- 
rell, Mr. and Mrs. Hezekiah D. Lott, Judge and Mrs. Thomas 
J. Wilson, Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson, mother of Judge Wilson, 
and Mrs. Catherine E. Wharton, the wife of a prominent 
physician in the county. Mrs. Rufus L. Patterson, who during 
the planning for the organization of the church had been 
most active and liberal, was called to her heavenly home {ivQ 
months before the plans were perfected. 

On Sunday, October 6, the small brick church on Cherry 
Street was dedicated. The pastor, the Reverend F. H. John- 
ston, preached from the text. Psalms 84: 11; the six children 
of the congregation— Flora Virginia, Sarah Lena, Arthur Pat- 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 75 

terson, and Henry Stokes Lott and Edgar Henry and Jose- 
phine Elizabeth Wilson— were baptized, and the three men 
of the congregation were duly elected Ruling Elders and 
ordained. Of the eight charter members of the Presbyterian 
Church, two joined from the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
one from the Methodist Protestant, and one was of Quaker 
extraction. 

The First Baptist Church was organized on September 22, 
1 87 1, in the courthouse by Elders F. M. Jordan and Robert 
Gourley with Eve charter members: Alfred Holland, the first 
Baptist who located in Winston, and four women. Miss 
Nannie E. Holland, Miss Nannie Marshall, Mrs. Permelia 
Jones, and Miss Sarah F. Kerr. 

In the Biblical Recorder of some years ago Mr. Jordan told 
of the beginning days of this congregation. "For four years," 
he said, "we held our services in the Courthouse. Here we had 
our communion service at night, the members sitting in the 
jury box with bright lights beaming down from the chan- 
deHers. It was a solemn scene. 

"I bought the lot loo by 200 feet on Second Street on June 
18, 1874, for which I paid $250. I went to Raleigh and col- 
lected the money from the First Baptist Church, of which 
Dr. T. H. Pritchard was the beloved pastor. 

"The Board gave me $100 per year; the distance [from his 
home in Hillsboro to Winston] was 70 miles; it required fiYt 
days each trip and sometimes more, and by the time I paid 
my railroad and stage fare, there was little left." 

A story of human interest concerning Brother Jordan, as 
he was affectionately called, was related to me by Miss Ethel 
McGalliard, a great-granddaughter of Mr. Jesse Kennedy, one 
of the founders of Winston. Every time that Brother Jordan 
came to Winston to hold services in the courthouse, he would 
stay in the hospitable Kennedy home. One day he came to 
Winston wearing such a shabby hat that his host asked, "Is 
that the best hat you have?" 



76 Forsyth, a County on the March 

"Yes," replied the self-sacrificing man of God. Whereupon 
Mr. Kennedy bought him a new hat and made sure that he 
did not give it away before leaving town. 

When the movement for the erection of an Episcopal 
Church began in 1877, there was but one communicant of 
that church living in Winston, a young lawyer, Mr. J. C. 
Buxton, son of an Episcopal clergyman. In Salem there were 
three women of the Episcopal faith— Miss Laura Lemly, who 
during her long life was a most ardent and consecrated mem- 
ber of St. Paul's, Mrs. W. H. Wheeler, and Mrs. B. F. 
Crosland. 

With selfless devotion this small group, assisted in time by 
other Episcopalians moving into the community, gathered 
funds for the purchase of a lot, at the corner of Fourth and 
Pine (Marshall) and the erection on it of a small frame 
church building, its tall spire towering over the other build- 
ings of the county town. 

Bearing the name St. Paul's, the church, in February, 1879, 
was consecrated. Bishop Lyman, assisted by the rector, the 
Reverend W. S. Bynum, and the Reverend R. B. Sutton, 
D.D., conducted the services; the Bishop preached from the 
text, John 4: 23, 24. At the meeting of the North Carolina 
Diocesan Convention in Fayetteville, May 15, 1879, St. Paul's 
Episcopal Church of Winston was admitted to the Conven- 
tion. 

During the early days of St. Paul's there were hardly more 
than a dozen families affiliated with the church. At one time 
when the rector was planning a series of services explaining 
to outsiders as well as his own congregation the fundamental 
doctrines of the church, he inserted in the local press an 
invitation to the general public to attend the meetings, stating 
that St. Paul's was not, as was generally believed in the com- 
munity, the church of the kid-gloved, silk-stockinged crowd. 

The finest bell that was ever brought to Winston, and the 
most musical, was the great bell of St. Paul's, weighing 1,030 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 77 

pounds and measuring from lip to lip exactly three feet. On 
one side the bell bore the inscription: 

Excites Lentos 
Clinton H. Meneely Bell Company, Troy, N. Y. 
A.D. 1800 
and on the opposite side: 

"Glory to God in the Highest." 

The earliest Negro churches in Winston had interesting 
beginnings. Lee Fries, an elderly member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church on the corner of Seventh and Chestnut, 
organized under the auspices of the Northern M.E. Church, 
remembers the story of the beginnings of the Methodist and 
Baptist Negro congregations in Winston. According to Lee, 
shortly after the surrender, his father and mother, ex-slaves of 
the Francis Fries family of Salem, moved to Waughtown, 
where there was quite a colony of colored folks. Lee's father 
and mother had been taught to read and, being deeply re- 
ligious, they soon began holding prayer meetings in their 
home. During the day while the father, John Fries, was work- 
ing in the Fries Wool Mill, the mother, Paulina, was passing 
the word around the neighborhood of the prayer service, and 
when night came the one-roomed cabin would be crowded. 

Every three or four weeks a Negro preacher, Andrew 
Willburn, who had a little farm between Thomasville and 
High Point, would come walking in, his Bible and hymn book 
under his arm, to hold preaching services. The home became 
too small to hold the crowds who came to hear the preacher, 
and an old schoolhouse was secured for the services. At this 
time Lewis Banner, who worked in the dye room of the Fries 
Factory, assisted also in the services, especially at funerals. 

Outgrowing the schoolhouse, the congregation moved to 
Happy Hill, a Negro settlement on the outskirts of Salem, and 
held their services under a bush arbor. 

After a time, they moved into Winston, and in a hall on 
Chestnut and Seventh, in front of the present site of the St. 



78 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Paul Negro ME. Church, the Reverend George W. Holland 
of Danville, as Lee says, "opened up Winston to the Baptists." 

A slightly different version of this story was given me by 
the church office of the First Baptist Church, at Sixth and 
Chestnut. According to this record, the Negroes of the Baptist 
faith, before 1879, gathered for worship under bush arbors 
and also in a building on Fourth and Chestnut streets, known 
as Hinshaw's Hall. The preacher at these assemblies, as they 
were called, was the Reverend George W. Holland. 

Some time in 1879, in the spring perhaps, or early summer, 
the Reverend Henry A. Brown, beloved pastor of the (white) 
Baptist Church and pastor-at-large of the town, organized the 
congregation under the Reverend George W. Holland into 
the first Negro church of the Baptist denomination in Win- 
ston, formally designated as The First Baptist Church. 

Some time after this the congregation purchased a lot on 
Sixth and Chestnut from the Moravian Conerecration for the 
sum of $75. The deed bears the date July 23, 1879. In 1882, 
through the devotion and sacrificial giving of the congrega- 
tion, a building was erected— a neat "wooden" structure rest- 
ing on high brick pillars, and facing Sixth Street. It was in 
the commodious basement of this church that the first tax- 
supported school for Negro children in Winston was held. 

In the 1879 Directory, the Reverend L. R. Ferebee 
(colored) is listed as pastor of the A. M. E. Zion Church, 
Fourth and Liberty, but no facts have been found concerning 
this church. 

According to Lee Fries, the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
North, on Chestnut and Seventh, of which he is a member, 
is the oldest Alethodist Church of the Negro race in Winston, 
for while the St. James Methodist Episcopal Church is the 
oldest congregation of the denomination in town, in that, at 
an early date, it moved here as an organization from else- 
where, the Church on Chestnut and Seventh was the first to 
erect a house of worship. 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 79 

Like the Negro Baptist movement in Winston, Lee Fries 
says, the Methodist movement had its beginning in Waugh- 
town shortly after the surrender. An ex-slave of the Francis 
Fries family, Harry Fries (no kin to Lee's father but living 
next door to him) was an ardent Methodist and when his 
neighbor started a Baptist prayer meeting, he started a Meth- 
odist one. 

The two prayer meetings never conflicted; on one night 
the whole neighborhood, old and young, would gather in the 
Methodist home; on another night, in the Baptist home. The 
grown folks would bring their chairs to the meetings; the 
children would sit on the floor. The leader— Methodist or 
Baptist as the case might be— would read the Scriptures and 
pray and then the congregation would lift up their voices 
in the singing of the old hymns loved by all churches, such as 
"Amazing grace, how sweet the sound!" 

In time the Methodists moved from Waughtown to Win- 
ston, the Reverend Isaac Wells preaching for them under a 
bush arbor in front of a small log house on North Liberty 
Street. From miles around, on foot, in wagons, the colored 
people would come to the preaching under the arbor. All day 
they would stay (they could have no night meetings as they 
had no way of lighting their arbor), spreading their lunches 
in picnic style during the noon-day intermission. 

Finally under Wells's leadership, they were able to build a 
church, an unpretentious little church, on the present site of 
the warehouse of the Brown-Rogers-Dixson Hardware Com- 
pany on Seventh Street near the railroad. Under the Reverend 
George Morehead the present church was erected; it was 
finished by the Reverend Shamberger. 

The St. James A. M. E. Church, through the oldest member 
of its congregation, J. C. McKnight, has furnished the follow- 
ing interesting information concerning the beginnings of that 
church. 

Under the leadership of a Negro preacher named Caldwell, 



8o Forsyth, a County on the March 

St. James was organized in 1882 in a building on Chestnut 
between First and Second streets. 

The names of the following charter members have been 
preserved: Giles Bason, Luther Walls, William Mendenhall, 
Amos Yarbrough, and three other men whose last names were 
Forsythe, Harrell, and Yauncey; i\lrs. Elisa Bohannon, Mrs. 
Edith Miller, Mrs. Mary Hall, and Mrs. Anna Harrell. For 
over sixty years Mrs. Edith Miller and Mrs. Anna Harrell 
remained devoted members of the church. 

The earliest mayors of Winston were, William Barrow 
(1859), Peter A. Wilson (i860), Robert Gray (1861), H. K. 
Thomas (1862), H. K. Thomas (1863), H. K. Thomas 
(1864), Thomas J. Wilson (1865), T. T. Best (1866), T. T. 
Best (1867), T. T. Best (1868), Jacob Tise (1869), Jacob 
Tise (1870), John W. Alspaugh (1871), T. T. Best (1872), 
John W. Alspaugh (1873), T. T. Best (1874), John W. Al- 
spaugh (1875), D. P. Mast (1876), Martin Grogan (1877), 
A. B. Gorrell (1878), A. B. Gorrell (1879). 

In 1867 Winston had no municipal election; the town was 
in Military District No. 2, under the jurisdiction of the com- 
mander of the district. Major D. E. Sickles; and in accordance 
with the special order No. 1 3 2 of the Federal government the 
officers of the town had to be appointed, not elected. Accord- 
ingly, Major Sickles appointed as mayor T. T. Best and as 
commissioners D. H. Starbuck, J. S. White, John D. Tavis, 
Benjamin Spaugh, Jacob Tise, William E. Axson, N. W. 
Nading. 

Before taking office each of these appointed men had to 
take the oath prescribed by Congress July 2, 1862: "I do 
solemnly swear that I will support and maintain the Constitu- 
tion and Laws of the U.S. and the Constitution and Laws of 
N. C, not inconsistent therewith. So help me, God." 

The business carried on in the Winston of the 1870's may 
be seen in the following facts from a pamphlet published at 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 8i 

the Blum's Print Shop, Salem, in 1878, entitled Guide Book 
of Northwestern North Carolina. 

In 1878 the population of Winston was 2,500. The sale and 
manufacture of tobacco was the leading industry of the town, 
with fifteen independent tobacco factories and four tobacco 
warehouses, employing a working force of more than 1,000 
hands, mostly Negroes. But there were also four wagon and 
buggy works doing a good business, two saddle and harness 
shops, and one livery stable (even at this early date Winston 
was becoming known as a center for the sale and exchange of 
horses); there were eighteen stores carrying groceries and 
general merchandise, four millinery establishments, two tailor- 
ing establishments, three men's ready-to-wear shops, one store 
selling men's clothing and furs, one shoe store which sold 
men's hats also; there were two jewelry stores, two drug 
stores, one hardware store, two confectioneries, one store 
selling tinware and stoves. 

The Winston of 1878 was a trading center of some impor- 
tance. The town had a thriving bank, the First National, 
established in 1876, with J. A. Bitting as president and J. W. 
Alspaugh as cashier. There were three up-to-date hotels— the 
long-established and popular Wilson Hotel, the Merchants, 
known as Pfohl and Stockton's, and the Central. 

From the very beginning days of Winston the local news- 
papers had a great part in furthering every movement for the 
growth of the town. 

In 1856 F. E. Boner and James Collins began the publica- 
tion of Winston's first newspaper, a weekly entitled the 
Western Sentinel. In a short while John W. Alspaugh ac- 
quired the entire control of the weekly, making it the most 
influential paper, during the stirring days of the late 1850's 
and the i86o's, throughout this section of North Carolina. 

In 1870 the National Advocate , financed by a small group 
of local members of the Republican party and edited by F. T. 



82 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Walser, was established in Winston. In 1874 Captain J. W. 
Goslen purchased the paper, changing its name to the Union 
Republican and making it in time the leading periodical of the 
Republican party in the state. 

In 1879 Colonel James A. Robinson, popularly known as 
Old Hurrygraph, began the publication of a small weekly, 
The Winstoji Leader, devoted to the interests of the Demo- 
cratic party. 

The years beginning with the i88o's mark a period of ex- 
pansion in the history of Winston. The mayors during this 
period were A. B. Gorrell (1880), Peter A. Wilson (1881), 
J. C. Buxton (1882), J. C. Buxton (1883), J- C. Buxton 
(1884). On November i. Mayor Buxton resigned to enter the 
senatorial contest and Samuel H. Smith was elected to fill the 
unexpired term. In May, 1885, Samuel H. Smith was elected 
but resigned the office in August, and Charles Buford filled 
out Mr. Smith's unexpired term. In 1886 T. J. Wilson served 
as mayor; in 1887, Charles Buford; in 1888, Charles Buford. 
In 1889 the biennial plan of election was inaugurated and 
Charles Buford remained in office until 1 890. 

During 1890- 1892 D. P. Mast was mayor; in 1892 Robah 
B. Kerner was elected for two years but died in office Sep- 
tember 25, 1893, ^^^ Garland E. Webb was elected to fill 
his unexpired term. Then followed in 1894- 1896, Eugene E. 
Gray; in 1896- 1898, Paul W. Crutchfield. In 1898 A. B. 
Gorrell was elected but died in office December 9, 1899, ^^^ 
John F. Griffith filled out his unexpired term. 

The financial center of the busy little tobacco town of the 
i88o's and 90's was the short street from Fourth to Fifth, then 
called Old Town but now Trade. 

On the corner of Fifth facing west was the thriving grocery 
store of Vaughn and Prather; on the corner of Fourth facing 
west was the brick store of H. D. Poindexter, bearing on its 
south wall the trade mark of the store, a fleet deer. 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 83 

Between these two stores, catering not only to the town 
but to a widespread country trade, stood the mammoth brick 
warehouse of Colonel A. B. Gorrell, the Farmers' Warehouse, 
extending from Old Town to Liberty, and noted at the time 
of its opening in 1881 as having the largest warehouse floor 
space in the world for the sale of loose tobacco. 

Across Old Town Street from the Farmers' Warehouse 
two concerns carried on big business: the tobacco warehouse 
of Major James Scales and Captain M. W. Norfleet, called the 
Piedmont Warehouse and known for its reliability and its 
popularity far and wide with tobacco growers; and to the 
north of Piedmont the brick tobacco factory of T. L. Vaughn, 
three-and-one-half stories high and modern in every respect. 

On Fourth Street facing north and causing a dead end to 
Old Town or Trade Street was the huge Hinshaw and Me- 
dearis store, selling everything from a shoestring to a parlor 
suite of furniture— the pioneer department store of northwest- 
ern North Carolina. 

The business carried on in the stores, factory, and ware- 
houses on this short street was astounding; thousands of 
dollars changed hands each working day, and on Saturdays 
and during the tobacco season the street was thronged from 
morning till night with pedestrians, horses, and vehicles. 

It was indeed a fitting recognition when the city fathers, 
sensing the importance of Old Town Street, changed its name 
to Trade. 

As a slant on the civic life of Winston during this period 
when the town was expanding in many directions, the follow- 
ing notes are taken from the Book of Minutes of the Board 
of Aldermen. 

August 4, 1879. Messrs Clarke and Ford appointed Keepers 
of the Scales and Weigh Masters until May i, 1880; pay fixed 
at five cents for each weighing except for unloaded wagons, 
on which they are to have no pay. 

In January, 1882, Winston was threatened with an epidemic 



84 Forsyth, a County on the March 

of smallpox. The Board of Aldermen ordered that every per- 
son in town, old and young, be vaccinated; a pest house was 
rented— at four dollars a month— for those who had contracted 
the disease, and those who had been exposed to smallpox were 
confined in quarantine quarters under strict guard. Hence the 
following minute from a called meeting of the Board January 
14, 1882: "Whereas it appears that the persons confined in 
quarantine in AVinston on account of having been exposed 
to smallpox have become drunk and are threatening to break 
the grounds and spread the disease, on motion ordered that 
persons confined within the limits of quarantine who shall 
become disorderly shall be punished by having a ball and 
chain put on them." 

January 19, 1882. "Be it ordained that no person shall enter 
Winston from the train of the N.W.N.C. Railroad without 
first being vaccinated or presenting satisfactory proof of vac- 
cination to the physician in charge at the Depot." 

February 7, 1882. "Ordered that who first discovers a fire 
is to proceed with all haste to Pace's Warehouse [Farmers' 
Warehouse on Old Town, now Trade Street] and inform the 
Watchman the number of the Ward [at this time the town 
was divided into four fire wards] who will by first giving the 
alarm by rapid ringing of the bell and then a short intermis- 
sion, sound the number of the ward the fire is in." 

On May 3, 1882, the town constable was elected with the 
understanding that when not engaged upon the duties of 
constable and tax collector, he was to do full police duty; his 
salary was fixed at $100 per year, plus 5 per cent commission 
on taxes collected and fees and costs on all cases as policeman 
or constable. 

At this same meeting the salaries of policemen were also 
fixed: the Chief of Police received $40 per month and costs 
and fees not exceeding $200, and the officers under him, $35 
per month and fees and costs not exceeding $200. The salary 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 85 

of the lamp-lighter, Alfred Wright, colored, was raised to 
$15 per month. 

June 6, 1882. Salary of Mayor fixed at $200 per year; of 
Secretary-Treasurer, $150. Noah Carter's appHcation for per- 
mission to run flying Jennies on the Fourth of July granted at 
$5 for the privilege. 

July 3, 1883. On request of some barbers, ordered that 
barber shops be closed on the Sabbath. Ordered also that 
policemen request parties not to feed [horses] on the streets; 
that certain sidewalks [on Fourth near Old Town or Trade] 
be filled up when dirt can be obtained. 

October 3, 1883. Ordered that the Fire Committee make 
arrangements with some party owning a pair of good horses 
to have them promptly at the Engine House [on Liberty just 
off Third] on the alarm of fire; for each time the engine is 
carried to a fire the said party to receive $5. 

January 27, 1883. Alfred Wright, lamp-lighter, allowed 
$ 1 8 per month with understanding that he devote more time 
to cleaning and keeping in good order the Lamps. 

February 6, 1883. Application presented, signed by a num- 
ber of citizens, asking that stepping stones be placed across 
the streets at the Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist Episcopal, 
Methodist Protestant, and Episcopal Churches. 

July 3, 1883. The Captain of the Fire Company reported 
that the Company was in an improving condition and more 
interest manifested and the membership increased. 

August 7, 1883. The riding of bicycles on side walks pro- 
hibited. 

August 4, 1884. Moved and carried that the Fire Commit- 
tee be empowered to purchase Fire Hats for the Fire 
Company. 

June 3, 1889. Petition signed by 50 ladies and gentlemen 
asked that the old Barringer House on Liberty be removed at 
once as it was day by day becoming more of a nuisance. 



• 86 Forsyth, a County on the March 

A growing sense of civic responsibility marked the Win- 
ston of this period. 

On Tuesday, May 8, 1883, the registered voters cast their 
ballots for tax-supported schools. On June 19, 1883, five men 
were elected school commissioners: W. A. Whitaker, James 
A. Gray, Calvin H. Wiley, James Martin, and Pleasant Hanes. 
Calvin H. Wiley was chosen chairman of the board, W. A. 
Whitaker, secretary, and James A. Gray, treasurer. 

Night after night during the unusually sultry summer and 
early fall of 1883 these five men, after long, strenuous hours 
in bank, factory, or office, would gather in the study of the 
chairman and for hours at a time, sometimes until midnight, 
wrestle with figures and building plans and details which took 
a great deal of maneuvering to be fitted into a whole. Day 
after day they would tramp over the dusty streets to study 
the various lots in different sections of the town which had 
been suggested as suitable school sites by interested citizens. 

Finally school lots were chosen and the school, West End, 
erected for white children. On September 9, 1884, West End 
School opened in regular session with 275 pupils. Before this 
formal opening, the school had had a short session from May 
23 to June II, 1884, for the purpose of organization. 

The amount raised by taxation was entirely inadequate for 
the erection of West End School; private citizens borrowed 
and advanced an amount nearly equal to the deficit, and two 
other citizens loaned the residue. The lot cost $3,000, the 
building $17,500, and the furnishings $4,500. 

Since there was little money on hand for the building of a 
school house for Negro children, the School Board, by an 
arrangement with the trustees of the First Baptist Church 
(colored). General Barringer, Henry Pendleton and Peter 
Martin, converted the church into a school. Later the Depot 
School was erected, partially with funds personally solicited 
from Northern philanthropists by the chairman of the board 
and Superintendent Julius L. Tomlinson. 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 87 

Our first public school, organized upon a sound financial 
basis and an up-to-date, far-sighted educational policy, at- 
tracted much attention. The editor of the widely-read New 
England Journal of Educatioji, Dr. A. D. Mayo of Boston, 
after a visit to Winston four months after the opening of 
West End wrote in his Journal: 

"The new city of Winston, N. C, has done the most nota- 
ble work among Southern towns of its size in the establishment 
of a system of graded schools. During the year it has built 
one of the most convenient and spacious public schoolhouses 
[West End School] in the country, and gathered the white 
children of the place under the superintendency of Professor 
[Julius L.] Tomlinson, so well known by his excellent serv- 
ices at Wilson, N. C. and in the summer normal schools of 
the State. 

*'Only four months from its organization, the school with 
all the disadvantages of the mixed population of a new manu- 
facturing community is a model and is thronged with visitors 
from all over the Southern country. An excellent beginning 
has been made with the colored schools and a handsome lot 
awaits the next effort for a commodious schoolhouse. 

"In all his labors, the indefatigable superintendent is upheld 
by an energetic school board, whose chairman. Dr. Wiley, 
was for many years State Superintendent of Education and 
may be called the father of the common schools of North 
Carolina. 

"Winston is a new city of remarkable growth, and in all 
ways a striking representation of the advancing life of the 
New South." 

The movement for a public hospital was started by a group 
of thirty-one women, who on June 27, 1887, at the home of 
Dr. Henry T. Bahnson, Salem, formed themselves into the 
Twin-City Hospital Association, electing Mrs. James A. 
Gray, president; Mrs. J. C. Buxton, first vice-president; Mrs. 



88 Forsyth, a County on the March 

J. A. Bitting, second vice-president; Mrs. J. F. Shaffner, treas- 
urer; and Mrs. J. M. Rogers, secretary. 

The solicitation for funds with which to furnish the beds 
and rooms of the house which the Association rented for the 
hospital— the old Martin Grogan home on Liberty, just to the 
south of the First National Bank— met with generous response; 
the physicians of both towns graciously offered their services; 
the mayor of each town pledged for his municipality a 
monthly sum of $12; so in six months' time, on the first day 
of December, 1887, the doors of the first institution in Win- 
ston for the care of the sick and suffering were thrown open. 

When the old Grogan house proved inadequate, the Asso- 
ciation moved the institution, proudly called the Twin-City 
Hospital, to a one-story frame building on Brookstown Ave- 
nue, containing one ward and three private rooms with a total 
of seventeen beds. 

In the early days of the Twin-City Hospital the equipment 
was so meagre that doctors and surgeons who came to operate 
on their patients had to bring their own surgical instruments. 

In June, 19 12, the Town of Winston voted bonds for the 
erection of a fireproof, up-to-date hospital. Ten acres of land in 
East Winston was purchased and construction started on the 
new hospital shortly before the merging of Winston and 
Salem into one municipality. 

Winston's first system of water works was a private affair, 
not a municipal concern. 

Editor George M. Mathes of the Western Sentinel, in his 
issue of October 27, 188 1, tells of the progress of the Winston 
Water Company: "The reservoir will be completed in four 
weeks. Takingr all the difficulties the Board of Directors have 
had to contend with in putting the work through, we think 
they deserve great credit. At the meeting of the stock-holders 
of the Company on last Thursday night Colonel J. W. Al- 
spaugh was called to preside and George W. Hinshaw 
appointed secretary. The old Board of Directors were re- 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 89 

elected: R. J. Wilson, S. E. Allen, E. A. Pfohl, W. L. Brown, 
G. W. Hinshaw, James A. Gray, and P. H. Hanes." 

Through the eyes of Editor Goslen of the Union Repub- 
lican, who drove out one fine Sunday afternoon to Belo's 
Pond to inspect the waterworks under construction, we see 
the signs of progress and business activity in the Winston of 
1881. 

The editor, after stating that on his afternoon's drive he 
counted fifteen new dwellings, goes on to say: "In the heart 
of the town is the Farmers' Warehouse. At the corner in the 
rear of Mr. Susdorff 's dwelling and near the new warehouse 
on Old Town Street [Farmers' Warehouse] is the store house 
of Messrs. Vaughn and Pepper (corner Fifth and Trade) 
just under cover. 

"On the corner of Fifth and Cherry [site of Hotel Robert 
E. Lee] we note with pride the handsome dwelling of Major 
T. J. Brown, built of brick and stucco-finish, with tower and 
porches, containing 12 rooms finished in style, with hot and 
cold water and gas fixtures complete. 

"As we drive down Presbyterian Street [so the editor calls 
Cherry] we note the roomy, old-fashioned dwelling of Dr. 
Spencer; James A. Gray, Esq., assistant cashier of the 
Wachovia National Bank, we learn, has purchased the prop- 
erty and will erect upon the spacious grounds a handsome, 
modern residence. 

"Further down the street, on the Winston line, is the Dr. 
Shelton dwelHng, brick and stucco-finish, with handsome 
tower and porches all around, containing 15 rooms finished 
in the best style; the mantels are especially fine. 

"Going out 4th, on Shallowford Street we note the hand- 
some residence Mr. Chamberlain is erecting [on Broad, facing 
east]. In fact, go in what direction we may, we find new 
buildings, new enterprises." 

Before 1882 Winston had no fire company, the only ap- 
paratus for fighting fire being the hooks and ladders owned 



90 Forsyth, a County on the March 

by the corporation. Early in February, 1882, W. F. Keith, 
representing a group of citizens interested in procuring more 
adequate fire protection for the town, appeared before the 
town commissioners with the proposition that a voluntary 
fire company, unsalaried, be organized, the town providing 
the equipment and necessary station personnel. 

The commissioners accepted the challenge, and on Feb- 
ruary II, 1882, Winston's first fire company— Steamer No. 
I— was formally organized. In May the fire engine arrived and 
the young fire-fighters in their fine new uniforms, purchased 
by the commissioners, were kept busy drilling for the volun- 
tary service they had assumed for the town. 

E. M. Pace was the first captain of Steamer No. i; he was 
succeeded by W. A. Bevil, and Captain Bevil was succeeded 
by J. H. Masten. In 1883 the native-born Englishman, A. J. 
Gales, a charter member of the Company, was elected to the 
captaincy and for twenty-one years served most efficiently 
in this position. 

On March 2, 1886, Winston's first fire company was incor- 
porated by the legislature. In 1891 a second companv of un- 
salaried voluntary firemen was organized. Steamer Company 
No. 2, H. L. Foard, captain. In 1893 ^ hook-and-ladder truck 
was added to the equipment. In this year also the motorizing 
of the department was begun. The first motor truck arrived 
on January 9, 191 3. Under the leadership of Chief Harry 
Nissen in 19 14 the complete modernization of the fire depart- 
ment of Winston-Salem was begun. 

For twenty and more years after the organization of our 
fire department the fire horses were used on the streets during 
the day for hauling purposes; thus they were often some dis- 
tance from headquarters at the first alarm of fire, and were 
delayed in getting into action. 

The Union Republican of December 16, 1886, makes men- 
tion of this use of the fire horses— or mules in the early days: 
"The town commissioners have erected a stable adjoining the 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 91 

fire house and have two mules quartered there to draw the 
city garbage cart and in case of fire to draw the fire engine." 

It was in the early 1890's that firebugs seemed to be at 
work in Winston. First in one section of the town and then 
in another unexplained fires would break out. In the Memorial 
of Robah B. Kerner, who was mayor during this period, a 
vivid description is given of one afternoon and evening of 
terror. 

While at one fire, the Mayor was summoned by fire bells 
loud and long to another section of the town. After assisting 
the volunteer firemen in getting this second fire under control, 
the Mayor, exhausted from his labors, drove to his home on 
West Fifth near Summit, but scarcely had he seated himself 
at the supper table when the fire bells summoned him to a third 
fire. 

This time a fire was raging near the Courthouse Square, and 
the Mayor, hastening to the Square, found a scene of wild 
confusion. "Firemen ran," says the Memorial, "the engines 
roared, a babel of voices rent the air, and from every ware- 
house and church steeple bells rang, and all the while the 
excited populace were rapidly congregating on every corner 
and every conceivable place." 

Seeing that great danger was imminent, the young Mayor 
sprang upon the nearest goods box and lifting his voice like a 
trumpet called to the seething mass of people: "Disperse! Dis- 
perse at once! Anyone remaining on the streets will be imme- 
diately sent to jail!" 

The crowds melted away and soon only the sound of the 
fire engines at work broke the quiet. All night the local militia, 
assisted by a hundred extra policemen, patrolled the streets, 
guarding the property and lives of the citizens, too alarmed to 
rest easy in their beds. 

There was much good-natured rivalry in the i88o's and 
90's between the fire companies of Salem and of Winston. 
The veteran member of Salem's Rough and Ready Fire Com- 



92 Forsyth, a County on the March 

pany, Andrew J. Peddycord, has left on record an interesting 
instance of this rivalry. It occurred on Thanksgiving Day, 
1892, when the recently opened, handsome Zinzendorf Hotel, 
present site of the C. H. Hill home on West Fourth, was 
totally destroyed by fire. 

Mr. Peddycord, driving the old Salem fire engine to the 
scene of fire was dashing up Cherry Street, just about to turn 
into Fourth, when he spied the Winston steamer, W. F. Keith 
engineer, en route to the Zinzendorf— not propelled by its 
own steam but hitched to the back of a streetcar, with engi- 
neer Keith seated on the top of the car. 

"I'll go by 'em this time!" declared the veteran fireman, and 
dropping the driving reins on his fine pair of black horses, he 
holloed, "Go!" and gave chase to the streetcar. 

When he reached the old Walker tobacco factory, now the 
Alexander x\partment, he shouted "Good-bye!" to the Win- 
ston firemen and dashed by their streetcar-driven steamer. 

When, however, the gallant driver of old Rough and Ready 
reached the hotel, laid out the hose line and coupled it to the 
hydrant, he found there was no water. 

All the heroic firemen of both towns could do was to load 
their hose and watch the fire destroy the most magnificent 
hotel Winston had ever erected. The fire was so intense that 
the heat was felt blocks away and the Davis School cadets 
and volunteer firemen were kept busy putting out fires on 
the roofs of adjacent buildings caught by sparks from the fly- 
ing shingles of the burning hotel. 

It was a bleak winter afternoon before the days of auto- 
mobiles or even streetcars in Winston that a policeman going 
his rounds found in a rather disreputable section of town two 
ladies, footsore and weary, sitting by the side of a railroad 
embankment. 

To the policeman's look of surprise, the elder of the ladies 
answered, her gentle face, framed in its widow's bonnet, 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 93 

lighting up as she said reverently, "We are wearing out shoes 
to the glory of God." 

This spirit seems to have been the motive that prompted 
the ladies of the Benevolent Society, organized in the annex 
of Old Centenary Church, December 14, 1887, to do their 
remarkable work among Winston's poor and destitute for 
thirteen years and five months. 

When one considers the handicaps of the little band of con- 
secrated women— there were never more than ninety-odd 
names on their roll and during some years there were less than 
thirty— and few of them rich in this world's goods, one marvels 
at their courage in face of discouragement. 

While the annual dues of the members and the contribu- 
tions of the husbands and "gentlemen friends" who were en- 
rolled as honorary members formed the steady revenue for 
the work of the society, the generous collections gathered at 
the big union meeting of all the churches in Centenary Church 
on some evening each year between Thanksgiving and Christ- 
mas helped greatly. Then, too, there were the annual Thanks- 
giving offerings of the West End School children, and later 
of the other schools. 

On the day before the Thanksgiving holidays, the West 
End pupils would bring their off erings— pennies and dimes and 
nickels they had earned or saved from their small allowances 
—potatoes and pumpkins and apples, home-canned peaches 
and tomatoes, sacks of meal and pounds of sugar; Superin- 
tendent John J. Blair, with his artistic skill, would arrange the 
offerings on the rostrum and then make an occasion of their 
pubUc presentation to representatives of the society; there 
would be Thanksgiving songs and recitations and the choos- 
ing of some of the children to accompany the ladies in their 
distribution of the gifts. 

If at times the ladies (as the time-stained Ledger always 
designates the members of the society) were imposed upon 
by the supplicants at their doors, or a "case" helped for years 



94 Forsyth, a County on the March 

would prove unworthy, they would put it down in their 
records as a mistake of the head and not of the heart. 

Among the "cases" there was old Mr. B., an unwashed 
Confederate soldier, who year after year made capital of his 
patriotism. There was the glib-tongued Mrs. E., who, accom- 
panied by her bad Httle son— the "onliest one" as she always 
spoke of him— would sit for hours at the fireside of some 
sympathetic lis tener-to-her- woes. There was the notorious 
Mrs. M., who flatly refused to go to the poor house, pre- 
ferring, she said, to continue being fed by the ladies rather 
than be dependent on strangers. 

Such pure charity breathes from the old Ledger, such for- 
getfulness of self, that as we read the faded words we feel 
almost as if we were reading a second book of the Acts of 
the Apostles: 

June 14, 1893. "Mrs. Hamilton, whom we have assisted 
since we have had a society, died in May. She was 94 years 
old and we have the consolation of knowing that we bright- 
ened her bedside by giving her some comforts she never 
would have received if it had not been for this society. She 
died trusting in the Saviour." 

October, 1893. "We are sorry we could not order any 
wood as we had no funds. We greatly regret this as it will be 
a hard winter and so many will need help as they have had 
so little to do this summer." 

February 10, 1897. "We wish to make special mention of 
a munificent gift of thirty dollars from the generous firm of 
Taylor Brothers. During the last few weeks the treasury has 
been heavily taxed." 

April, 1897. "The meeting was rather a gloomy one, for 
dispondency crept into our hearts as we faced an empty treas- 
ury and in debt seven dollars. The question was asked. What 
shall we do? After discussion it was finally decided that the 
society would appeal to the public for aid, and Mrs. Wiley 
was requested to write an article for the city paper. We trust 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 95 

that she will touch the hearts of the people in a manner that 
will call forth willing and liberal response." 

January, 1901. "Our hearts are indeed sorrowful over the 
recent death of Mrs. W. T. Martin, one of our most efficient 
members. Among her last deeds while lingering between life 
and death, she distributed alms to 'a little one' in His name." 

The officers of the first two years of the Benevolent Society 
were, in 1887, Mrs. S. S. Hendren, president; Mrs. C. H. 
Wiley, vice-president; Mrs. Frank Martin, secretary; Mrs. 
John W. Alspaugh, treasurer; in 1888, Mrs. C. H. Wiley, 
president; Mrs. J. C. Buxton, vice-president; Mrs. Mary C. 
Prather, secretary; Mrs. D. Rich, assistant secretary; Mrs. 
John W. Alspaugh, treasurer. 

The summer of 1887 marks the casting aside of the old 
gasolene and kerosene street lamps and the lighting of Win- 
ston with electric lights. 

The Winston Electric Light and Motive Power Company 
was incorporated March 25, 1887. The officers of the stock- 
holders of this company were Judge D. H. Starbuck, presi- 
dent; Captain D. P. Mast, treasurer; the directors were T. L. 
Vaughn, J. E. Gilmer, J. A. Bitting, A. Ryttenberg, W. A. 
Whitaker. 

At eight o'clock on the evening of August 26, 1887, Colo- 
nel Bitting by a turn of the hand connected the street lines 
with the arch dynamo machine, and the awaiting spectators 
on the streets were dazzled with the first flash of Winston's 
electric lights. 

The coming on of the lights proved a seven days' wonder 
to the people of Winston and the surrounding country; the 
battery was near the jail, and at eight o'clock each evening 
when the current was turned on, there would be a crowd 
standing around to see the dazzling sight. 

Some weeks after the installing of electricity, early one 
September afternoon during a severe thunderstorm, the 



g6 Forsyth, a County on the March 

people of Winston were startled by the sudden flashing on 
of all the thirty-seven arc street lights; for fivt minutes the 
lights burned with intense brightness, then snapped out. 

Some months after the installment of electric lights Win- 
ston and Salem began the movement for an electric street 
railway; on March ii, 1899, ^^e Winston-Salem Street Rail- 
way Company was incorporated. In January, 1891, the Elec- 
tric Company and the Street Railway Company were con- 
solidated under the name of Winston-Salem Railway and 
Electric Company. 

The Union Republican of Thursday, July 17, 1890, gives 
the following account of the starting of the streetcars. 

"Monday afternoon marked another step in the ever-grow- 
ing prosperity of our towns. It was the starting of the electric 
streetcars, an event looked for with much eagerness and ex- 
pectation. President F. J. Sprague, whose system operated 
the plant, arrived upon the noon train. About 2 o'clock p.m. 
the first car made a trial trip over the line, occupied by 
President Sprague, Vice-President E. L. Hawkins, J. H. Mc- 
Clemment, Mr. Field of the Field Engineering Company, Mr. 
Bourn of the Sprague Company and others. 

"Although the machinery was all new and the track just 
laid, everything worked like a charm. A large company of 
citizens witnessed the passing of the car and the Salem Band 
made music as a token of appreciation for this great enterprise 
in our midst. It is to be regretted, however, that all the re- 
quired tests were not made first and Tuesday afternoon ap- 
pointed for an appropriate jollification with music, speeches, 
a 'turnover of the line' and so forth. The citizens were eager 
for such a manifestation and waited for an announcement to 
that effect. 

"Tuesday, July 15, 1890, the cars began to run regularly, 
and the excursionists from Raleigh made free use of them as 
did also our visitors from Greensboro yesterday, July 16. 

"For the past few nights there has been a perfect jam of 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 97 

merry pleasure seekers spinning up and down the line, and 
the streets thronged with spectators. 

'It is certainly a great step forward, an enterprise that 
involved a large outlay, which signifies the confidence foreign 
capitalists have in our present and future welfare, and we 
believe that the investment will never be a cause for regret. 
Onward is the watchword in the Twin Cities and the entire 
Piedmont section has long ago caught the spirit of the times. 

"To the citizens in town and in country we would say that 
the five handsome new streetcars and two flats which will 
soon be operated on schedule time, the lights, the building and 
machinery that operates the whole, is a sight worth witness- 
ing. It will cost nothing to look at and but a nickel to ride." 

It was on May 4, 1885, that Winston's first daily newspaper 
appeared— the Twiit City Daily, a modest folio, 12 inches to 
the page, owned and edited by P. F. Doub and ZoUicoffer 
Whitehead. It was not until December 12, 1887, however, 
when J. O. Foy assumed complete control of the paper, that 
it really began to make an impress upon the life of Winston. 

In the meanwhile the Western Sentinel under the manage- 
ment of Edward A. Oldham was taking on new life. In 1883 
Mr. Oldham, having acquired the interest of G. M. Mathes, 
placed on the date line of the paper for the first time the 
hyphenated word Winston-Salem. In 1885 Mr. Oldham 
merged the Winston Leader with his paper and introduced 
many new features in the staid old Democratic weekly. In 
1888 Vernon W. Long succeeded Mr. Oldham as editor. In 
1890 the Tnjoin-City Daily acquired the Western Sentinel, 
continuing its publication as a weekly and adding the word 
Sentinel to the title of the Daily. 

In 1892 WilHam F. Burbank purchased the two Sentinels— 
the weekly Western Sentinel and the Tivin-City Daily Sen- 
tinel, and upon his removal to California two years later 
continued the publication of the periodicals under an incor- 
porated publishing company. 



98 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Winston's second daily newspaper was The Journal which, 
founded by C. L. Knight with the help of J. R. Justice, made 
its first appearance on April 3, 1897. For several years The 
Journal was published as an afternoon paper. On January 2, 
1902, it became a morning paper and also commenced the 
publication of a Sunday issue. 

Since May i, 1937, the Winston-Salem Journal, the Tivin- 
City Sentijiel, and the Sunday Journal and Sentinel have been 
published by the Piedmont Publishing Company. Gordon 
Gray is president of the Company and publisher of the 
newspapers. 

In the development of Winston from the small country 
town of the i88o's the Chamber of Commerce has played an 
important part. This organization, composed of the leading 
citizens of Salem as well as of Winston, from its very begin- 
ning referred in its minutes to our community as Winston- 
Salem, thus anticipating the time when the two independent 
municipalities would be united as one city. 

The first mention of the Chamber of Commerce— spoken of 
as the Board of Trade— is to be found in the Union Repub- 
lican of Thursday, September 24, 1885, and reads as follows: 
"A meeting of the business men of the two towns was called 
on Monday evening last, September 21, at the office of Cap- 
tain E. F. Young [who is listed in the 1884 Directory of 
Winston as a broker, residing at the Central Hotel] to take 
into consideration the organization of a Board of Trade for 
the town of Winston." 

The first Minute Book of the Chamber of Commerce was 
burned on the night of February 5, 1889, when the store of 
the secretary-treasurer, J. D. Paylor, in which the book was 
kept, was destroyed by fire. Therefore the official records of 
the Chamber begin with the February 9, 1889, meeting of 
the Directors: John W. Fries, president, J. E. Gilmer, vice- 
president, C. A. Hege, R. Stevens, J. L. Patterson, John W. 
Hanes, Chesley Hamlen, S. E. Allen, and J. M. Rogers. 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 99 

However, important items concerning the beginning days 
of the Chamber have been found in the Ujiion Republican 
(which has the only complete file of local newspapers, the 
other early daily and weekly newspapers of Winston having 
been destroyed by fire) . 

The U7iioji Republican of Thursday, October 22, 1885, 
states: "At a meeting of citizens of Winston-Salem held Sep- 
tember 28, 1885, to consider the propriety of organizing a 
Chamber of Commerce for the two towns, a form of Con- 
stitution [evidently worked out at the called meeting in the 
office of Captain Young on the evening of September 21] 
was submitted by W. A. Whitaker, A. B. Gorrell, J. M. 
Rogers, H. E. Fries, G. W. Hinshaw, C. Hamlen. [A com- 
mittee] was appointed to examine and revise this paper and 
report to an adjourned meeting on October 5th. At said meet- 
ing (October 5) the form of constitution hereinafter given 
was ordered to be printed and distributed among the citizens 
of the towns for their consideration and the undersigned were 
elected a committee to attend to this duty. 

"In the discharge of this task the committee felt that it was 
proper to submit to the public concerned some explanations 
and suggestions in regard to the character, principles, and 
uses of the important movement now inaugurated." (Then 
follows the explanation of the objects of the Association.) 

In the November 12, 1885, issue of the Union Republican 
appears the next reference to the newly organized association: 
"The Chamber of Commerce met in the Armory of the 
Forsyth Rifles Monday evening the 9th inst. Mr. J. M. Rogers 
was called to the chair and Willis E. Hall, Esq. requested to 
act as secretary. 

"Mr. Morris, Chairman of the Committee to the Tobacco 
Association reported that the Association declined to join the 
organization as a body, but the Association passed resolutions 
of sympathy with the movement and urged its individual 
members to join. 



lOO Forsyth, a County on the March 

"Mr. Joe Stockton reported from the Committee to the 
A^erchants but no definite action thereon was had. 

"On motion of Mr. John W. Fries the Secretary read the 
Constitution by articles which were considered and amended 
in many particulars. 

"Among other things the initiation fee was reduced to $6. 
Finally a call was made for membership under the present 
alterations of the Constitution; 20 firms signified a willing- 
ness to join." 

The Union Republican of November 19, 1885, reports: 
"Another meeting of this organization was held in the Armory 
Monday night the i6th inst. to effect a permanent organiza- 
tion and to elect the ofHcers. The meeting w^as called to order 
by Mr. J. M. Rogers, Captain E. F. Young, secretary. 

"Upon an election for permanent officers being held, the 
following were elected: president, J. M. Rogers; first vice- 
president, John W. Fries; second vice-president, W. A. 
Whitaker; Board of Directors consisting of 8 members, to 
wit: H. E. Fries, C. A. Hege, C. A. Fogle, R. J. Reynolds, 
P. H. Hanes, W. B. Carter, Jr., E. A. Pfohl, George W. 
Hinshaw. 

"A committee was appointed to secure a charter for the 
Association. 

"Thirty-seven business firms were represented in the meet- 
ing and it is confidently believed and expected that others 
will join now that the association is permanently organized 
and fully officered; and upon a thorough investigation of the 
organization and from the character of the gentlemen enlisted, 
we are satisfied that it is upon a business footing, that its object 
is a good one and as such deserves the hearty cooperation 
of all." 

The minutes of the called meeting October 17, 1885, of the 
Board of Aldermen has a reference to the Chamber of Com- 
merce which shows the activity of the Chamber from its very 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston loi 

beginning: "Mr. E. F. Young, secretary pro. tern, of the 
Chamber of Commerce of Winston and Salem recently or- 
ganized," the record states, "appeared and in behalf of the 
Chamber of Commerce requested that the Board of Town 
Commissioners aid in repairing the main thoroughfares lead- 
ing into Winston, representing to the Board the deplorable 
condition of such roads. 

"After discussion ... it was moved and carried that the 
Street Committee instruct the Street Superintendent to do 
upon Shallowford and Germantown roads $ioo worth of 
work ... to be done under supervision of Street Committee 
and a committee from the Chamber of Commerce." 

An item in the U72ion Republican of November 19, 1885, 
refers also to this matter, stating, "At the first meeting [of the 
Chamber] to consider a constitution presented for adoption, 
the matter of our public roads leading into town was dis- 
cussed and the temporary president appointed a committee to 
raise money for the improvement of said roads and the sum of 
$1,600 was raised." 

The following items from the records of the Chamber, 
1 889- 1 896, show the wide range of the civic activities of this 
group of interested, wide-awake citizens. 

February 9, 1889. The Board of Directors met in a called 
meeting to consider what action should be taken concerning 
the bill now before the legislature to lower the legal rate of 
interest. The secretary was authorized to send a telegram at 
once to Speaker Leazer and Representative Reynolds of the 
county protesting on behalf of the Chamber against the pas- 
sage of said bill. 

April 13, 1889. Mr. J. C. Buxton stated that in an informal 
meeting of some of our citizens held a few days since with 
citizens of Kernersville, a resolution was passed requesting 
this meeting of the Chamber to be called to consider the 
question of the extension of the High Point, Randleman, 



I02 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Ashboro, and Southern Railroad to Winston via Kernersville. 
Mr. Buxton moved that the Chamber appropriate $ioo to- 
ward the expense of surveying said route. 

March ii, 1890. The meeting was called to consider (i) a 
pubHc government building for Winston, (2) the proper 
advertising of our material resources and other advantages, 
(3) improvement of our railroad schedules. 

The standing Committee on Trade and Transportation 
was requested to make special effort to secure separate 
freight and passenger trains on all railroads entering Winston 
and to urge a more accommodating schedule on all the same. 

April 18, 1890. The Chamber met in special meeting to 
consider the question of procuring the removal of Davis Mili- 
tary School from La Grange to Winston-Salem. Mr. G. W. 
Hinshaw for the Committee on Location read a report rec- 
ommending citizens of Winston-Salem to subscribe and 
donate $20,000 to aid and encourage Colonel Davis to locate 
his school here. Subscriptions were at once opened and $6,500 
subscribed. 

October 8, 1890. A special committee was appointed to 
look into the matter of free postal delivery for Winston. 

December 5, 1890. Mr. C. B. Watson spoke upon the neces- 
sity of collecting accurate statistics of temperature and rain- 
fall, and Dr. Henry Bahnson made a strong appeal, showing 
the necessity for keeping vital statistics also. 

January 30, 1891. President John Hanes stated the object 
of the meeting was to consider the matter of locating at this 
place the Agricultural and Mechanical School for colored 
people. The Chamber was informed that a delegation from 
the colored people was in waiting and on motion said delega- 
tion was invited to come before the Chamber, and its spokes- 
man Professor Atkins addressed the Chamber in an eloquent 
and impressive manner. Colonel John W. Alspaugh, Messrs. 
R. B. Crawford, W. A. Whitaker, and T. J. Wilson were 
appointed to take the whole matter in charge. Mr. R. B. Glenn 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 103 

and the secretary (W. A. Blair) were appointed a committee 
to memorialize the Legislature upon this subject. 

February 9, 1891. The Committee on the Industrial School 
for colored people reported that Messrs. Eller and Starbuck 
had offered to donate an admirable site of 25 acres and give 
an easy option on 25 acres additional, that owing to the bad 
weather the canvass had not been pushed but that about $1,250 
had been raised. Professor Atkins was introduced and stated 
that the colored people had raised $2,000 and could raise $500 
more. 

June 15, 1 89 1. The Chamber's attention was called to the 
fact that while excursion rates were given on railroads to 
almost all points in North Carolina, our city was "coldly, 
calmly passed by." 

April 7, 1892. The question of a paid fire department was 
discussed. 

November 14, 1892. The President spoke of the terrific fire 
which had visited our city, and said it seemed right to call 
together our best citizens to set on foot preventive measures 
for the future. 

January 2, 1893. Mr. Robert B. Glenn spoke of the advisa- 
bility of bringing up the question of consolidation under the 
name of Winston-Salem. 

April 2, 1894. Mr. George Hinshaw of the Committee on 
Internal Improvements reported that arrangements for hold- 
ing the Fruit Fair here had been almost completed but that 
the frost had probably killed all the fruit and hence there 
would be no fair. 

January 20, 1896. Professor S. G. Atkins, President of the 
Slater Industrial Academy, was introduced and made an 
entertaining and delightful speech, telling of the work of the 
Academy. 

In 1905 Slater Industrial and State Normal School, a monu- 
ment to its founder. Dr. S. G. Atkins, came fully under state 
control as one of the state institutions for the training of 



I04 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Negro teachers. For more than half a century, Dr. Atkins 
held the confidence and respect of both white and colored 
races in the community. He was a pioneer in the industrial 
development of his race and in the teacher-training depart- 
ment in Negro education. Amid his varied and arduous duties 
as head of the Slater School (in 1925 under a new charter 
renamed The Winston-Salem Teachers' College) he found 
time to work through civic activities for the welfare and 
progress of his race in our community; and in state-wide and 
nation-wide movements relating to the labor and economic 
aspects of the race problem he at all times manifested active 
interest. 

Concerning the beginning days of the local Y.Al.C.A. the 
following items have been culled from an interesting article 
by Colonel William A. Blair in the Anniversary Edition of the 
Twin-City Sentinel, May 4, 1935: 

In the annex of Old Centenary Church, on Sunday, Octo- 
ber 7, 1888, with Captain R. B. Crawford acting as chairman 
and W. A. Blair as secretary pro tem, the Association was 
organized with 129 charter members. 

A committee was appointed consisting of the following 
men from the various churches of the town: Rev. E. P. Davis, 
pastor of the First Presbyterian Church, Major Samuel H. 
Smith, Mr. Frank A. Coleman, Dr. W. J. Conrad, Mr. Rufus 
Spaugh, Rev. W. E. Swaim. This committee was instructed 
to draw up a constitution and by-laws and report at the next 
meeting, to be held October 14, 1888, in the First Baptist 
Church. 

Messrs. Eugene E. Gray, W. T. Carter, E. A. Ebert, J. C. 
Buxton, Robert B. Glenn, and B. F. Norman were appointed 
a committee to select rooms for the Association. 

For $25 per month, later reduced to $20, the committee 
secured suitable quarters in the upper story of the Jacobs 
Building, Main and Third, owned by a pioneer Hebrew mer- 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 105 

chant of the town, Mr. Joe Jacobs, a broad-minded, public- 
spirited citizen; and the Association was immediately launched. 
Mr. E. L. Harris, who had had experience in Y work in other 
cities, was employed as general secretary. 

In a few years a Woman's Auxiliary, consisting of repre- 
sentatives from the different denominations, and the Boys 
Department were organized on a budget of $2,500. 

The early membership fee was $2.00 and for an additional 
$2.00 the member had the use of the one small bathtub, soap 
and towels thrown in. 

For the sum of $4.50 a stove was purchased for the assem- 
bly room and later a bulletin board-paid for, no doubt, by 
the committee appointed to secure it, Major T. J. Brown, 
W. S. Clary, and John W. Hanes. 

At one meeting, in 1893, the secretary reported that the 
Association had no Bibles and was short on chairs and hymn 
books; he also stated that some of the boys who used the 
rooms had rough appearances and still rougher manners. At 
a meeting in 1896 thanks were voted the telephone company 
for a free phone, and a complimentary ticket of membership 
was ordered to be sent the company. 

In 1897 the Association moved their quarters to Brown's 
Opera House, Main and Fourth; educational classes were 
added to the work of the Association, and a gymnasium 
opened with lockers, bath, and dressing rooms. 

In 1906 under the inspiring leadership of Robert C. Nor- 
fleet, president of the Y at that time, the sum of $55,000 was 
subscribed in a whirlwind campaign of fifteen days for a 
building to be erected on the corner of Fourth and Cherry- 
present site of the Nissen Building. 

Of such public interest was this campaign for a new Y that 
the completion of the fund was announced in a very unusual 
manner. By special permission of the Board of Aldermen, at 
8: 15 P.M., on December 7, 1906, the fire alarm sounded forth 
fifty times, one stroke for every thousand dollars raised. In 



io6 Forsyth, a County on the March 

1908 the handsome four-story stone building of colonial 
design was opened and occupied. 

From May 14, 1900, to May 12, 191 3, when by popular 
vote Winston ceased to be a separate municipality and 
through consolidation with Salem became Winston-Salem, 
Winston had only two mayors: O. B. Eaton and Rufus I. 
Dalton. 

In 1900 O. B. Eaton was elected for a term of two years; 
since, however, in 1902 Winston had no election (in com- 
pHance with the state law that no municipal election could be 
held in the same year as the general state election), he was 
retained in office an additional year. Elected again in 1903, he 
remained in office until 19 10. The 191 1 municipal vote re- 
sulted in the election of Rufus I. Dalton as mayor. Serving 
with Mayor Dalton as the last official board of small-town 
Winston were the following aldermen: Thomas Maslin, J. 
Walter Dalton, Garland E. Webb, J. R. Watkins, C. L. 
Bagby, N. D. Dowdy. 

These last thirteen years of Winston saw the town expand- 
ing in many directions. The building operations were exten- 
sive; industry became more diversified; the street railway was 
extended to East Winston; the Children's Home, site of the 
old Davis Military School, was estabhshed; the Associated 
Charities organized, and also the Y.W.C.A.; the city school 
system was expanded, especially in the erection of a separate 
building for the high school department— the handsome 
Cherry Street High School; a fine city hall was erected at a 
cost of $75,000, and the agitation for a public library was 
brought to a successful conclusion in the erection of Carnegie 
Library on Cherry Street. 

The movement for a public library began in 1903 when 
through the efforts of J. C. Buxton, chairman of the City 
School Board, Andrew Carnegie agreed to donate to the city 
of Winston the sum of $25,000 for the erection of a building 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 107 

upon the condition that the city would furnish a lot and make 
an annual appropriation of not less than $2,500 for the main- 
tenance of the institution. 

In a mass meeting in February, 1903, Mr. Buxton ac- 
quainted the citizens of Winston with Mr. Carnegie's proposi- 
tion. Time and again he appeared before the Board of Alder- 
men concerning the matter; he discussed it also with the 
commissioners of Salem. 

It was not until the October meeting of the Board of 
Aldermen, however, that official steps were taken in the 
matter through the appointment of a special committee to 
meet with a like committee from Salem. On December 21, 
1903, the Winston Board of Aldermen after an earnest appeal 
from Mr. Buxton adopted the following resolution: 

"Whereas Mr. Andrew Carnegie has offered to the City of 
Winston-Salem, N. C. the sum of $25,000 to build a Public 
Library for the use and benefit of said Cities, 

"And whereas the joint committee appointed by the Board 
of Aldermen of the City of Winston and the Commissioners 
of the Town of Salem has reported to their respective Boards 
that it is not convenient at this time to accept said gift on the 
terms proposed by Mr. Carnegie and whereas Mr. Carnegie 
is willing to give the City of Winston the sum of Fifteen 
Thousand Dollars, provided the City of Winston will appro- 
priate $1,500 per year for the maintenance and support of the 
library and provide a suitable site for said Building, that the 
offer is hereby accepted on the part of the City of Winston 
and this Board hereby authorize the said Library Building to 
be erected on the east corner of the West End Graded School 
lot fronting on Fourth Street, belonging to the City of Win- 
ston, and the clerk of this Board is hereby authorized and 
instructed to certify this resolution to Mr. Andrew Carnegie 
and to express to him the thanks of the City of Winston for 
his liberal donation: 

"Resolved, that an annual appropriation of $1,500 is hereby 



io8 Forsyth, a County on the March 

made for the purpose of maintaining and supporting the said 
Hbrary; the sum to be available when the library building is 
completed and turned over the City. 

"Resolved, that Mr. J. C. Buxton, the Mayor of the City, 
and James K. Norfleet be and are hereby appointed as the 
building committee who shall have the whole matter in 
charge. W. E. Franklin, Secretary and Treasurer. O. B. 
Eaton." 

The building committee, after due consideration, decided 
that the West End School property was not the best location 
for a public library to be used by citizens residing in far 
distant sections of the town. Accordingly, a site was chosen 
in the heart of the town, on Third and Cherry, accessible by 
foot or by streetcar to all sections. 

On March 5, 1904, the Board of Aldermen formally au- 
thorized the purchase from Mr. James A. Gray of his lots on 
the corner of Third and Cherry at the price of $2,000, the 
same to be used for the Public Library building. 

At the April 17, 1905, meeting, Mr. Buxton appeared before 
the Aldermen and stated that the new library building was 
almost completed and that in as much as the library had no 
books, it would be well to appoint a committee of ladies to 
assist with the selection of books. 

The Board appointed Mr. Buxton and his building commit- 
tee to continue as the library committee for one year with 
power to elect a librarian, select any number of ladies to co- 
operate with the committee, and make all preparations for the 
opening of the institution. 

The library committee chose Mrs. Mary Prather as librar- 
ian and as a nucleus for the new library transferred to its 
empty shelves the well selected West End School library, 
founded through the indefatigable labors of the first superin- 
tendent, Julius L. Tomlinson. 

On February 14, 1906, Carnegie Library was formally 
opened. Mr. W. A. Whitaker, who had had much to do with 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 109 

the founding of the old West End School and its fine library, 
checked out the first book. 

The years 1905- 1909 stand out in the history of Winston, 
for it was during these years that one of her citizens, Robert 
Broadnax Glenn, served as governor of North Carolina. 

Coming to Winston in 1886 from Danbury, where he had 
established himself as a rising young lawyer, Mr. Glenn be- 
came active in the civic and church affairs of his adopted 
home. He was especially interested in all that concerned the 
moral uplift of the youth of the community; he took an active 
part in the organization of the Y.M.C.A., and as an elder in 
the First Presbyterian Church he gave freely of his time and 
talents to that important office. 

In his youth Robert Glenn was an ardent advocate of tem- 
perance, and when he became governor of North Carolina he 
resolved to do all in his power to put down the liquor traffic 
in his beloved commonwealth. 

Gifted with a magnetic personality, with unusual powers 
of oratory, he led the campaign which eventually, in 1908, 
led to state-wide prohibition. In the face of powerful liquor 
interests, despite personal opposition and ridicule, he fearlessly 
gave voice, from one end of the state to the other, to the cause 
which he believed was right. 

It is of local interest to note that when state-wide prohibi- 
tion went into effect, on January i, 1909, the two wholesale 
liquor houses in our community and the twelve liquor saloons 
were closed. 

Before becoming governor, Mr. Glenn had brought distinc- 
tion to Winston by his fearlessness in the execution of his 
office as solicitor for the ninth judicial district; as U. S. Dis- 
trict Attorney under President Cleveland he made a distin- 
guished record. 

With the zeal he had used in fighting the liquor interests. 
Governor Glenn during his administration brought about 
better conditions in the state hospitals for the care of the 



no Forsyth, a County on the March 

insane and in the institutions for the deaf and dumb and the 
blind; he caused the enforcement of certain laws pertaining 
to the railroads of North Carolina; and he settled, to the satis- 
faction of creditors and with honor to the state, the debt 
which for years had been hampering North Carolina's 
progress. 

The greatest catastrophe which ever befell our town was 
the bursting of the large brick and cement city reservoir, at 
the northern end of Trade Street. The entire northern wall 
gave way unexpectedly at five o'clock on the morning of 
Wednesday, November 3, 1904, and the surging torrent of 
1 80,000 gallons of water rushed east and then north following 
the ravine to Belo's Pond, carrying death and destruction in 
its path. Eight houses were swept away, the personal effects 
of the families living in them scattered everywhere. Nine 
persons were killed and numbers injured more or less 
seriously. The fire bells rang and the firemen of both tow^ns 
rushed to the scene of destruction to render heroic voluntary 
service. 

Just ten days before the bursting of the reservoir, Win- 
ston's new water plant (the erection of which was made 
possible by the passing of municipal bonds in January, 1904) 
was completed and water pumped into the new standpipe. 

Had the accident occurred a fortnight before, AA'inston 
would have been without water and, as the local press of the 
day stated, every cistern in town would have been dry in less 
than forty-eight hours. 

Among the people living near the reservoir who miracu- 
lously escaped death were a Negro man and his wife. They 
were carried safely in their bed on the crest of the flood to 
the bottom land around Belo's Pond. A boy whose mother 
was crushed to death in the collapse of the wall was saved 
because the bed on which he was sleeping was in an upper 
room under the roof, where the two sides came together in 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston iii 

a peak; when the large stones hit the house, the low roof 
dropped over the bed, permitting the sleeping boy to con- 
tinue his nap in safety. 

Through the untiring efforts of Mrs. R. D. Moseley and 
her Whatsoever Circle of King's Daughters, the Christian 
women of Winston organized on March 8, 1905, the Asso- 
ciated Charities of Winston, an association supported by 
voluntary gifts, which during the expanding years of the 
1900's did a great and lasting work among the poor and 
underprivileged of the community. 

Mrs. Henry L. Riggins was elected president of the new 
organization; Mrs. D. Rich, first vice-president; Mrs. James 
K. Norfleet, second vice-president; Mrs. J. M. Rogers, third 
vice-president; and Miss Annie Grogan, secretary, at a 
monthly salary of $20. It was thought best to have a business- 
man to handle the financial side; so Mr. J. F. Griffith was 
asked to serve as treasurer. 

The sum of $1,200 was set for the first year's goal. A com- 
mittee headed by Mrs. James K. Norfleet, Mrs. R. D. Mose- 
ley, and Mrs. Henry Foltz made a house-to-house canvass 
with the result that by May 30 the sum of $1,080.60 had been 
pledged. The first annual report shows that a total of 
$1,170.76 had been subscribed and that, in addition, $1,094.11 
in cash had been collected and $20 in wood and merchandise. 

The early minutes of Associated Charities show how val- 
iantly the small group of women bearing the burden of the 
town's down-and-outs tried to solve the questions of segrega- 
tion and care of consumptives, street begging, employment 
of children under twelve years of age in factories, and 
unemployment. 

The following excerpts from the Book of Minutes give an 
idea of the foundational work of this organization, which in 
time led to present day city-county welfare agencies. 

June, 1907. Mrs. Moseley, Miss Mamie Dwire, and Mrs. 



112 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Roddick were appointed a committee to look into the ques- 
tion of a day nursery greatly needed. 

December, 1909. In regard to the girl in jail, a committee 
was appointed to see her and find out if she would go to the 
Home for Girls in Asheville. Mrs. Manly offered to pay the 
expenses of some good woman to accompany her. 

April 28, 19 10. Mrs. Andrew Mickle suggested that the 
Associated Charities try to find a home for the consumptives 
(under care of the association) where they could all be cared 
for together. 

February 28, 191 1. Mrs. James K. Norfleet, Miss Blackwell 
(Methodist deaconess) and Miss Grogan, the secretary, were 
appointed to consult with Judge Hastings in regard to the 
establishing of a work house for girls and women. 

A big item in the early reports of the treasurer is that of 
transportation— sending back to the country and to various 
towns those who had moved into Winston for support. The 
story is told of "Miss Annie," as the secretary. Miss Annie 
Grogan, was affectionately called by rich and poor, that at 
one time of depression she advised so many out-of-work 
people to move into the country that a prominent business- 
man laughingly remonstrated with her, declaring, "Why, 
Miss Annie, if all your parishioners follow your advice, there 
will be so many people in the country you can't stir them 
with a stick." 

On January 30, 1908, the Y.W.C.A. of Winston-Salem was 
organized in the Presbyterian Church under the direction of 
Miss Anna Castle of the National Y.W.C.A. Board. Mrs. 
E. B. Jones, who was entertaining Miss Castle in her home and 
who herself was greatly interested in the welfare of young 
business girls, was elected the first president of the Y. 

While this was the formal organization of the local associa- 
tion along national Hues, for two or more years a small group 
of young business women sponsored by various groups of 
church women had been carrying on a Business Woman's 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 113 

Club suggested by Miss Ada Snow. Miss Flora Leak, who 
knew personally almost every business girl in the small com- 
munity of the 1900's, and her mother, Mrs. Mattie Leak, be- 
came warm friends of Miss Snow, and one evening around 
the supper table these three friends and a new friend. Miss 
Caroline Hawkins, assistant to the pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church, began to make plans for a club where working 
girls living in boarding houses might spend their off -hours. 

With Miss Hawkins as the head, the movement was soon 
launched. Dr. Neal Anderson, pastor of the First Presbyterian 
Church, and Mr. J. M. Rogers, one of his elders, giving 
hearty support and encouragement. Mr. Rogers donated the 
use of a room over his hardware store— present site of Kress— 
and various other merchants contributed heavy curtains to 
divide the big room into assembly hall, tiny rest room, and 
kitchenette. Interested women gave furnishings for the rooms, 
including a piano. 

On the evening Miss Castle was organizing a real 
Y.W.C.A., the Brown-Rogers store caught on fire and the 
club rooms of the pioneer Y were completely destroyed by 
fire or water. 

New quarters were at once secured: a large room on the 
second floor of Gilmer Brothers on South Main Street, con- 
verted by means of beaver-board partitions into association 
room, with secretary's oflice in one corner, a reading room, 
and a kitchen. Miss Anna Shaw of Pittsburgh, a trained 
Y.W.C.A. official, was employed as secretary. 

In these rooms the association was housed until the late 
Mrs. R. J. Reynolds made possible the handsome and pleasant 
Y on First and Church streets. 

A survey of Winston during the last decade of her history 
as a separate municipaHty shows the business life of the town 
(the population, something over 17,167), centering about 
Courthouse Square, some distance down to the Union Depot, 
up Liberty a few blocks, down Main to Second. Cherry 



114 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Street south from Fourth, upper Liberty; Fourth and Fifth 
streets west from Cherry were residential sections, with tree- 
lined sidewalks, broad front yards, and back-yard vegetable 
gardens surrounding the homes. 

There were no sprawling apartment houses, no skyscrapers. 
The tallest, most pretentious buildings were the seven-story 
Wachovia Bank and Trust Company on Third and Main; 
the Masonic Temple, erected in 1906, on Fourth and Trade; 
the three-story First National Bank Building on Liberty, 
erected in 1890; the Masten Building, Fourth and Main, 
erected in 19 10; the Jones Building, North Liberty just north 
of Fifth Street, erected in 1900; and the three-story O'Hanlon 
Building (soon after this period destroyed by fire and re- 
placed by the present tall, handsome structure). 

The Post Office, on the site of the present Federal Building 
but much smaller, had a working force of forty; there were 
fourteen letter carriers and four substitute carriers, and ten 
railway mail clerks who worked in and out of the town and 
who were paid through the local office. 

The Elks Auditorium— now the State Theatre— with a 
seating capacity of 2,300 was the principal auditorium for rec- 
reational and cultural purposes; the Amuzu, the Liberty, and 
the Rex, which was for Negroes only, were small moving 
picture shows. 

In 191 3 the great foreign trade of Winston was in its in- 
fancy. For shipment over the United States no special freight 
trains were necessary, and shipping by huge trucks was un- 
thought of. 

Few farmers used automobiles in bringing their tobacco to 
town; during great tobacco breaks, the covered wagons 
double-parked would crowd Trade Street, Main near Brown's 
Warehouse, and Fifth as far west as Spruce or even Poplar. 
Hundreds of farmers would sleep on the floors of the ware- 
houses or camp out in their parked wagons, cooking their 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 115 

supper and breakfast by the light of the lanterns hung on at 
the backs of their wagons. 

When Winston voted for consolidation, the assessed value 
of property was $711 per capita; the bonded debt of the town 
was $61.20 per capita. 

The very fact that during the years preceding consolida- 
tion the women of Winston were, through their Women's 
Improvement League, waging a vigorous campaign for the 
beautifying and upkeep of public grounds and buildings, the 
enforcement of sanitary measures in keeping the town clean, 
shows not only that women were awakening to their respon- 
sibilities as citizens but that the town had need of more thor- 
ough official oversight of streets and public property. 

Among the measures urged by the Women's Improvement 
League were the regular flushing of the bithulithic streets and 
the sweeping and sprinkling of the unpaved streets; the use 
of tin garbage cans in place of old barrels and boxes; the en- 
forcement of law against "using as enlarged cuspidors" 
the inside walks and public buildings such as the Post Office 
and the Union Railroad Station; the beautifying and improve- 
ment of all the city school grounds, especially those of West 
End School, which were about to wash away. 

The minutes of the Board of Aldermen show that at the 
turn of the century the old question of allowing citizens to 
raise hogs on their town lots was still a matter of concern to 
the town authorities. Indeed, the question of Hogs or No 
Hogs was made an issue in certain sections of Winston in 
the matter of consolidation with Salem. 

The town records show that, in the months preceding the 
election on consolidation, first one large group of citizens in 
one section of the town and then another group in another 
section would present petitions asking to be allowed to con- 
tinue raising hogs; an equally large group of property-owners 
would promptly petition against hog-raising. It became a 



ii6 Forsyth, a County on the March 

delicate matter for the aldermen to decide, especially when 
it became evident that the vote for consolidation would be 
affected by the decision they made. Finally, on the evening 
of March 7, 191 3, the aldermen cast their votes, as many For 
as Against; the Mayor broke the tie, casting his vote for the 
negative. 

With the following excerpts from the minutes of the 
Winston Board of Aldermen concerning the consolidation 
with Salem these glimpses of small-town Winston come to a 
close. 

"February i, 191 3. Whereas an Act of the General Assem- 
bly of North Carolina was duly passed and ratified 27 th day 
of January 191 3 consoHdating as one municipality the City 
of Winston and the Town of Salem in the name of the City 
of W^inston-Salem, in accordance with the provisions con- 
tained in said Act, providing that the same should be ratified 
by the voters of the City of Winston in an election to be 
held in the City of Winston and by the voters of the Town of 
Salem in an election to be held in the Town of Salem; 

"Whereas if a majority of the votes cast in each of said 
elections should be in favor of the said consolidation as set 
forth in said Act of the General Assembly, 

"Be it ordained: that ... an election shall be held in the 
three wards of the City of Winston on Tuesday the i8th day 
of March 191 3 ... that the Mayor shall give proper and legal 
notice of the time and place of said election by publishing in 
some newspaper published in the City of Winston for at least 
30 days prior to the date of said election. 

"May 18, 191 3. The returns of the election on Consolida- 
tion held March 18, 191 3 having been presented, they were 
approved. The votes cast were: First Ward 350 For, ^6 
Against, total 406; Second Ward 210 For, 96 Against, total 
306; Third Ward 204 For, 108 Against, total 312." 

On May 6, 191 3, the election of the official board for the 
municipality of the City of Winston-Salem was held, and the 



Glimpses of Small-Town Winston 117 

following men were elected: mayor, O. B. Eaton; aldermen, 
first ward E. D. Vaughn, C. M. Cain; second ward G. E. 
Webb, P. S. Bailey; third ward N. D. Dowdy, G. W. Ed- 
wards; Salem ward H. F. Shaffner, Fred A. Fogle. 

On May 12, 191 3, the new Board met in the Council Cham- 
ber of the City Hall at 8:30 p.m. and took their oaths of 
office. 




V 

SMALLER TOWNS, VILLAGES, 
AND HAMLETS 




iV'iW 



THERE is something appealing about our North Caro- 
lina towns. Isaac Erwin Avery said of them, "They 
are the most charming places in the world, where 
folks send you good things to eat when you are 
sick and talk about you when you are well." Forsyth County 
is blessed with its share of the smaller units of population. 
They contribute to the social development of the people, 
although they do not shine with the lustre of the metropolis. 
No attempt is here made to present their full history; rather 
the aim is to tell of their origin, to relate interesting details in 
their development, and to list some of their representative 
family names. 

Bethabara, or Old Town 

On a November day in 1753, the first settlers reached 
Wachovia. They found a deserted cabin, formerly occupied 
by a frontiersman named Hans Wagner. Crowded into this 
welcome shelter, they celebrated their arrival with a lovefeast 
and sang a hymn composed for the occasion, probably the 
first poem on record composed in North Carolina: 

"We hold arrival lovefeast here 
In Carolina land." 

The hymn was sung to the accompaniment of wolves howl- 
ing in the wilderness. 

Next day all of the colonists were at work building their 
town, "some sharpening their axes and preparing their hoes, 
others beginning to construct a bakeoven, one exploring the 
country to find a mill where they might buy some com, etc., 
whilst three brethren were busy in the house, preparing a kind 
of garret with rough boards, where they could store their 
goods." 

The names of these first settlers were Bernhard Adam 
Grube, Jacob Loesch, Hans Martin Kalberlahn, Hans Peter- 



122 Forsyth, a County on the March 

sen, Christopher Merkley, Herman Loesch, Erich Ingebret- 
sen, Heinrich Feldhausen, Johannes Lisher, Jacob Lung, 
Friedrich Jacob Pfeil, and Jacob Beroth. They were soon 
joined by other pilgrims. DweUing houses, a grist mill, and a 
meeting house were erected. In 1756 the settlement numbered 
sixty-five inhabitants. 

The village attracted travelers. This outpost in the wilder- 
ness offered hospitality. On the ancient trail to Virginia, 
Bethabara was visited by settlers and Indians. Cherokee, 
Creek, and Catawba Indians halted there, and more than five 
hundred passed through the settlement in 1757 and 1758. 
They described Bethabara as a place "where there are good 
people and much bread." 

The French and Indian War, begun in the north in 1754, 
spread southward. In 1756 a palisade was erected about the 
settlement. Guards were on duty. Settlers for a hundred miles 
around fled to Bethabara for refuge. They came from as far 
away as New River in Virginia and Alamance River in North 
Carolina. Brother Kapp, the miller, tried to provide meal for 
all the refugees. 

Indians surrounded the fort. One day a neighboring settler 
staggered into it with two arrows in his body. His companions 
had been killed, but he had escaped, wounded, and after long 
wandering reached the fort, where the arrows, one of which 
had pierced him through, were extracted. Fifteen settlers in 
the neighborhood were slain by the marauding Indians. 

Suddenly the Indians disappeared. Later the settlers learned 
that they had been frightened away by the ringing of the 
church bell and the blowing of the trumpet in the Httle set- 
tlement. 

Frontier guardsmen who patrolled the region in this period 
of danger included Daniel Boone, whose home was on the 
Yadkin River. 

After peace was restored, more settlers arrived in Wacho- 
via. Bethabara became an important center for trade. Neigh- 



Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 123 

bors found here a community of devout, well-educated, and 
cultured inhabitants. According to plan, however, Bethabara 
was designed to be only a place of passage. Salem was estab- 
lished as the central town of Wachovia in 1766. Gradually the 
inhabitants of Bethabara moved thither. But there were still 
stirring scenes at the first settlement. Governor Tryon visited 
there, and his troops paraded in the meadow to the music of 
the Bethabara band. Lord Cornwallis marched through with 
his army in 1781. 

Today it is a small, picturesque community seemingly far 
removed from the busy industrial city of Winston-Salem. The 
ancient church, built in 1788, stands as a monument to the 
pilgrims who found their way into the wilderness and estab- 
lished themselves as the first settlers. The parsonage, built in 
1778, is across the street. In the hilltop burial ground are the 
graves of the pioneers. 

Bethabara has been a house of passage. Without Bethabara 
there would have been no Salem and no Winston-Salem. 

Bethania 

Among the refugees who assembled in Bethabara during the 
Indian War there were some who desired to unite with the 
Moravian settlers, and there were also certain Moravians who 
wished to establish themselves independently instead of shar- 
ing in the closely-bound co-operative social system of the 
settlement. 

To accommodate these two classes, plans were made for 
a new settlement three miles west of Bethabara in a valley 
location known as Black Walnut Bottom. Bishop A. G. Span- 
genberg led the pioneers in selecting the site in June, 1759. 
Surveyor Renter measured off thirty town lots, two tracts of 
meadow land, several acres of upland for gardens and or- 
chards, and about two thousand acres of land set apart for use 
of the inhabitants. 



124 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Moravian settlers who were assigned lots in the lower 
part of the village were Gottfried Grabs, Balthasar Hege, 
Charles Opiz, Christopher Schmidt, John Beroth, Adam 
Kremer, Michael Ranke, and Henry Bieffel. On July i8, Mr. 
and Mrs. Grabs and their little son William occupied the first 
cabin erected. The comforting Scripture text for the day was, 
"I will fear no evil, for Thou art with me." Indeed, there was 
need of such comfort, for the dangers of Indian warfare 
threatened this infant colony. Spangenberg and his party of 
town-builders rode their horses at a thundering gallop on the 
road from Bethabara to the new town, and it was well that 
they did, for Indian warriors were lurking in the forest along 
the trail, waiting for opportunity to attack. 

Neighbors who were permitted to settle in the upper part 
of the new town were Martin Hauser and his two married 
sons, George and Michael Hauser, Henry Spoenhauer, John 
Strup, Philip Shaus, Frederick Shore, a widower, and his son 
Henry Shore. 

In the year 1781, when the inhabitants of Bethania num- 
bered ninety-one, the quiet village was again brought into the 
theater of war. The army of Lord Cornwallis, pursuing Gen- 
eral Greene, was forced by high water to forego crossing the 
Yadkin River near Salisbury, and marched upstream beyond 
the west bank of the river to the crossing at Shallow Ford. 
The British army of five thousand Redcoats, with about as 
many camp-followers, descended upon the village on Feb- 
ruary 9. Lord Cornwallis selected as headquarters a house on 
Main Street north of the church, later the home of Professor 
A. I. Burner. Soldiers raided the neighborhood, seizing all the 
ducks, chickens, hogs, and cattle to be found and com- 
mandeering the horses. Fences and outbuildings were burned 
in campfires. Troopers located several still-houses in the re- 
gion outside the town. A commentator has stated that there 
was so much drunkenness that five hundred Colonial troops 
could have captured the entire army. 



Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 125 

Bethania has from the beginning enjoyed cultural advan- 
tages. Education has been well supported and the community 
has been served by able teachers. A distinctive contribution 
to higher education was the work of Miss Emma Lehman, for 
many years a teacher at Salem College. Old Town High 
School serves the community today. 

A brick church built in 1 809, succeeding the first house of 
worship, was destroyed by fire in 1942; only the brick walls 
were left standing. In the fire the oldest pipe organ then in 
use in North Carolina was reduced to ashes. The church has 
since been rebuilt and is very nearly like the former building. 

Bethania has retained its old-world appearance. It is a quiet, 
neighborly village that attracts many visitors. 

Among the familiar Bethania names not already mentioned 
are Transou, Oehman, Chadwick, Kapp, and Holder. 

Friedberg 

A year after the first settlers arrived at Bethabara, Adam 
Spach, a native of Alsace, settled in the valley of a small creek 
south of the Wachovia Tract. For safety he cut a road 
through the forest from his home to Bethabara, and with his 
family he fled to the fort during the Indian War. 

Upon his urgent invitation, a minister visited his home in 
1758 and preached to eight families there assembled. This was 
the beginning of the Friedberg congregation. 

A meeting house was built and was consecrated in 1769. 
Fourteen families united in this effort, of whom the men were 
Valentine Frey, Christian Frey, George Frey, Peter Frey, 
George Hartman, Adam Hartman, John Mueller, John 
Boeckel, Frederick Boeckel, Jacob Crater, Martin Walk, 
Peter Foltz, Adam Spach, and Christian Stauber. Another 
member later associated with the society was Marcus Hoehns 
(Hanes) . 

Friedberg Church has flourished, growing in membership 



126 Forsyth, a County on the March 

until the congregation has become one of the largest among 
the rural churches in North CaroHna. 

Adam Spach, the Father of Friedberg, built a residence of 
stone, known widely as the Rock House. It was located over 
a spring and had a large basement into which cattle could be 
driven in case of siege. The walls were provided with port- 
holes. 

More than five thousand descendants of Adam Spach have 
been recorded. Other famihar names among the early settlers 
include Ebert, Fishel, Fisher, Rothrock, Tesch, Weisner, 
Zimmerman, Reich, Mendenhall, and Graver. 

Hope 

Southwest of Bethabara, between the present Hanes and 
Clemmons, the settlers Christopher Elrod and John Douthit 
invited Moravian ministers to preach in the neighborhood. 
These settlers sought refuge at the Bethabara fort in the 
Indian War. Several families from Carroll's Manor in Mary- 
land moved into this community. A meeting house was begun 
in 1775 but was not completed until 1780. The congregation 
was called Hope. 

Early residents of the community included families named 
Peddycord, Padget, Chitty, Boner, Goslen, Hamilton, Boyer, 
Markland, Slater, and Riddle. 

Many Moravians migrated to the Middle West early in the 
nineteenth century and founded a town in Bartholomew 
County, Indiana, which was named Hope after the congrega- 
tion in North Carolina. 

Friedland 

Several families arrived in Wachovia in 1769. They had 
first begun a settlement at Broad Bay, Maine, but were not 
pleased with the location. On their way to North Carolina 



Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 127 

they had been shipwrecked off the coast of Virginia. These 
settlers were assigned land southeast of Salem and there 
founded Friedland. The names of early members were John 
Peter Green (Kroehn), Michael Rominger, Philip Christoph 
Vogler, Melchoir Schneider, Frederick Kuenzel, Michael 
Sides, Jacob Rominger, Frederick Miller, Jacob Hine, Peter 
Schneider, John Lanius, Peter Fiedler, George Frederick 
Hahn, and Jacob Reid. Additional names associated with the 
neighborhood are Williard, Swaim, and Smith. 

The army of Lord Cornwallis on the march in 178 1 camped 
for the night in the vicinity of Friedland. The church diary 
states: "The Friedland people living near the camp lost nearly 
all their forage and cattle. All sorts of excesses were com- 
mitted by wandering parties seeking food." 

The township in which Friedland is located is known as 
Broadbay, in memory of the earlier New England home of 
the first settlers. 

Belews Creek 

The early history of this settlement can be found only in 
fragments. In 1753 the survey on Belews Creek was recorded 
of 200 acres of land each for Thomas Linville (Linvall), Sr., 
and Thomas Linville, Jr., by Lord Granville's "sworn sur- 
veyor," William Churton. "Sworn chain carriers" were Wil- 
liam Barclay, Thomas and William Linville. 

In 1767 the county court in Salisbury granted three public 
roads from Salem, one leading to "Beloe's Creek." Salem 
agreed to care for seven miles of the road to "Blewers Creek." 
The new road to "Beloos Creek" was opened in 1773. 
Itinerant Moravian ministers preached at Belews Creek in 1772 
and later, enjoying the hospitality of settlers Fehr, Say lor 
(Seeler), and others. Hoffman's son, from "Bielus Creek," 
was employed in 1774 as hostler at the Bethabara tavern. 

A military company from Belews Creek passed through 
Salem in 1776. The Salem diary comments: (1780) "A party 



128 Forsyth, a County on the March 

of soldiers came from the Belews Creek settlement with about 
thirteen Tories, and they asked for a service." (1781) "The 
militia company from Beloe's Creek were to muster here 
today." (1781) "Forty men came from Below's Creek, and 
remained here over night." The Bethania diary: (1781) "The 
Captain, Cummens (Cummings) by name, came with another 
man who asked modestly for something to eat; we gave it to 
him and he left with many thanks." 

In April, 1782, Peter Lewis (Ludwig) on Belews Creek 
brought his infant son to Salem to be baptized. In 1786 there 
was noted the funeral of George Fulp (Volp), born in 17 18. 
"The Brethren proclaimed the Gospel several times in his 
home." Other names of early settlers appearing in the records 
from time to time are Neal, Preston, Pegram, Hester, Dean, 
Brooks, Strader, and McNally. 

Pfafftown 

Peter Pfaif, who was born in 1727, arrived in Wachovia 
in 1 77 1 and settled at Friedberg. His son Isaac married Mar- 
garet Fulk (Margaretha Volk) in Bethania; they made their 
home on a farm west of the town. In his old age Peter Pfaff 
moved there to join them. 

The Bethania diary recorded in 1801: "A very severe 
storm passed near us. At the home of Isaac Pfaff, three miles 
from here, lightning struck the shed and killed two horses. 
Fortunately it was a cold flash, and did not set the shed on 
fire. At the home of Joseph Pfaff, a short mile from there, it 
struck and splintered a tree about forty paces from the 
dwelling." 

The name of the family was early attached to the commu- 
nity. In selecting a preaching place in the outlying neighbor- 
hood, the Bethania authorities in 181 2 recommended "the 
house of Bro. Peter Pfaff, in Pfafftown, and the house of Br. 
Jacob Krieger." 



Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 129 

Other familiar names of the Pfafftown community are 
Stultz and Wilson. 

Brookstown 

The family name of an early landowner is preserved in 
Brookstown. In 1793 Brooks Ferry on the Yadkin River was 
mentioned, and there may be some connection between this 
name and that of the settlement. 

Bethania records of 1808 state that most of its citizens 
"went to the annual election, some going to Salem, some to 
Germanton, and some to the place called Bruxe's Town, three 
miles from here, where the election is being held for the first 
time." In 18 14, however, the state legislature changed the 
voting place from "Brux's Town" to Bethania, where several 
hundred men gathered to vote. 

A Methodist church was established in Brookstown in the 
early years of the settlement. The Negroes of the community 
also had their place of worship. According to the Bethania 
records of 181 1, "The meeting for Negroes, set for the after- 
noon, could not be held, as most of the Negroes had gone to 
Bruxe's Town to hear the funeral sermon of one of their race 
who had died there some time ago." 

The oldest house standing in the community was built by 
the Conrad family. Other familiar Brookstown names are 
Dobb, Mickle, Hunt, Hauser, and Rayle. 

Rural Hall 

"Hermanns (Harmon) Miller enters one hundred acres of 
land in Surry County, lying on a Branch of Beaver Dam 
Creek, beginning on Jacob Lash's Line ... Jan. 3d, 1778." 
This entry introduces Beaver Dam, the name first given to 
Nazareth EvangeUcal Lutheran Church of Rural Hall. The 
church records state that the congregation was organized in 
1785 and that A. Kiger gave the land for the school. 



130 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Since there was a scarcity of Lutheran ministers, from 1 796 
for a score of years Moravian ministers served the congrega- 
tion by request. In these years funerals were conducted for 
deceased members of the families of Kreeger, Petree, Moser, 
and Keiger. A funeral service for Hermanns Miller, men- 
tioned above, was conducted in 18 18. In that year the commu- 
nity numbered twenty families. 

In 181 3 the visiting minister commented that preaching 
was held once a month and on the other Sundays a free school 
was conducted. The present building was erected in 1879. 

In time the railway lines to North Wilkesboro and Mount 
Airy converged in the town, and the name Rural Hall was 
bestowed upon the village. A thriving industrial and trading 
center has developed, and a county high school serves the 
comm.unity. The town is incorporated. 

Among the names familiar in the story of Rural Hall are 
Stauber, Payne, Helsabeck, Flynt, Westmoreland, Wilson, 
Lash, Tuttle, and Kiser. 

Clemmons 

Clemmons derives its name from Peter Clemmons. His son, 
Edwin Thomas Clemmons, who was born in the neighbor- 
hood, was a prominent operator of stage-coach lines, at one 
time having six stages running out of Salem. The last surviving 
stage coach operated by him, named the "Hattie Butner" in 
honor of his wife, ran for some time between Salem and High 
Point. Its last run was between Old Fort and Asheville. This 
stage coach is now a popular exhibit in the Hall of History of 
the Wachovia Historical Society. 

In its early years Clemmons was a small but flourishing 
community. It drew trade from the river plantations, and 
tradition says that when customers desired the latest style in 
ladies' hats, they went to Clemmons rather than to Salem. 

The old brick house built by Philip Hanes, son of Marcus, 



Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 131 

is a landmark not far from the village. T. Holt Haywood's 
Arden Farm is located on Muddy Creek to the east. Along the 
Yadkin River are the estates of W. N. Reynolds and R. E. 
Lasater. Across the river is the estate of S. Clay Williams. 

Familiar names in the earlier history of the community are 
Johnson, Griffith, Blackburn, Hall, Sprinkle, Hunter, Hege, 
Strupe, Cooper, Jones, Davis, and Fulton. 



Kernersville 

The largest tow^ in Forsyth County, next to Winston- 
Salem, is Kernersville. Its elevation is about seventy-five feet 
higher than its city neighbor and it is the source of Haw 
River, Deep River, Abbotts Creek, Salem Creek, and Belews 
Creek. 

The story of Kernersville begins with the coming about 
1756 or 1760 of Caleb Story, a native of Ireland, who bought 
400 acres of land near the Guilford County line east of the 
AVachovia Tract, the tradition being that he paid for it with 
four gallons of rum. Story sold the land to a man named Dob- 
son, and for many years the name Dobson's Cross Roads was 
applied to this locality. President George Washington in 1791 
halted for breakfast at Dobson's Tavern, then located at the 
crossroads. 

The Dobson land-holdings increased to 1,032 acres, and 
were sold in 1 8 1 3 to Gottlieb Schober, of Salem. Schober trans- 
ferred the property to his son Nathaniel, who in 18 17 sold it 
to Joseph Kerner, a resident of the Friedland community. The 
name was then changed to Kerner's Cross Roads. 

Kerner added more land, and at his death in 1830 he left 
1,100 acres to be divided among three heirs. John F. Kerner 
received the portion to the west of what is now Main Street; 
Philip Kerner's share was the land to the east and the home- 
stead; the daughter Salome, who had married ApoUos Har- 
mon, received a share to the south. 



132 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Sale of lots began in 1 840 and led to an increasing number 
of residents. The thriving town of Kernersville developed and 
was incorporated in 1869. Joseph Armstrong was elected the 
first mayor. 

Julius Kerner, a descendant of Joseph, was a widely known 
painter and decorator who operated under the professional 
name of Reuben Rinck. The residence that he built on Main 
Street is known as Kerner's Folly, because of its strange 
architectural designs, with all the windows of different sizes 
and doors on various levels. The house is still a marvel and a 
delight to visitors. 

The Southern Railway came to Kernersville in 1873. Indus- 
tries have multiphed and there is brisk trade. Nine churches 
serve the town. 

Among the familiar names in Kernersville history are 
Beard, Linville, McCuiston, Lindsay, Lewis, Davis, Griffith, 
Leak, Gentry, Guyer, Fulton, Roberts, Stewart, Shore, Staf- 
ford, Greenfield, Henley, Stockton, Ring, Vance, Fulp, 
Plunkett, Armfield, Whittington, Hooper, Huie, Ray, Sapp, 
Rights, Hendrix, Lowery, Pinnix, and Atkins. 

Walkertown 

"Across the Town Fork Road from John Armstrong, 
Robert Walker secured 400 acres, formerly 'the Douglas 
Place,' his grant being dated 1779." This tract was northeast 
of Salem and appears designated on a map of 1771, "Robt. 
Walker." 

The family name Walker spread throughout the vicinity and 
it is probable that Walkertown derives its name from this 
family. 

At the headwaters of Walker Creek a tract of land was 
listed on a map of 177 1 in the name of Sam Wagner. It seems 
that Wagner was involved in the War of the Regulators and 
was denied pardon by Governor Tryon. At any rate, the 



Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 133 

name Wagner, or Wagoner, or Waggoner, has been long 
familiar in the Walkertown neighborhood. 

Tradition holds that the Methodist Church was organized 
in 1 79 1. A deed of 1797 records that "Thos. Tucker & Ann 
his wife transferred to James Love, Sr., Edmond Jean, Wil- 
liam Jean, James Love, Jr., Edward Cooley, Robert Fulton 
and Archibald Campbell, Trustees" one acre for use of the 
Methodist Church. The journal of Bishop Francis Asbury has 
this entry for Monday, October 7, 1799: "We rode through 
Stokes County, and attended a meeting at Love's Church, 
which has glass windows and a yard fenced in." Love's 
Church was destroyed by fire in 1947. Rebuilding began soon 
thereafter. Morris Chapel, named for the Morris family, is 
near by. 

Today Walkertown is on the Norfolk & Western Railway, 
and a county high school is located there. 

Among other familiar names in the Walkertown commu- 
nity are Sullivan, Grubbs, Young, Idol, Whicker, Disher, 
Siewers, Sell, Crews, Mecum, Moir, Van Hoy, Hester, Ham- 
mack, and Jones. 

Lewisville 

Lewis Lagenauer, a descendant of the Lagenauer family 
that came to Friedland about 1773, settled in western Forsyth 
County and built a substantial brick house. Tradition has it 
that the village which grew up about this home was called 
Lewisville after the first name of the founder. 

Not far from Lewisville along the Yadkin River the Wil- 
liams family settled before the Revolution, and the plantation 
at Panther Creek has had a long and interesting history. Up- 
stream was the Martin plantation. 

West of the village in the big bend of the river is West 
Bend, a small settlement, among whose familiar names are 
Black, Jones, McBride, Hauser, Dinkins, and Nading. The 
land in the bend of the river was until recent years a part of 



134 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Yadkin County, and a former resident of West Bend, B. 
Franklin Jones, served as sheriff of Yadkin County. 

A county high school is located in Lewisville. This school 
suffered the loss of its building by fire, but has risen again 
from the ashes. Miss Anna Ogburn has opened the doors of 
her "Sunny Acres" farm as a friendly community center. 

Among the familiar Lewisville names are Craft, Wagoner, 
Dull, Fulk, and Reynolds. 

Teaguetown 

Near the southeast corner of the county is Teaguetown, 
named for the Teague family. It has no church, but not far 
away are Abbotts Creek Primitive and Missionary Baptist 
churches to the south. Union Cross Moravian to the north, 
and Bunker Hill Baptist and Methodist churches to the east. 

Down below the bend in the road is the location of the 
ghost town Browntown, once a busy place where circuses 
performed, now completely deserted. Along Abbotts Creek 
settled Barnett Idol, whose son Jacob was a soldier in the 
Continental Army during the Revolution. Barnett Idol's 
grandson Barnett married Rachel Chipman, a descendant of 
John Howland, a Pilgrim of the Mayflower voyage. Farther 
down the creek camped the armies of General Greene and 
Lord Cornwallis, and there are stirring legends of Colonel 
Spurgeon, an ardent Tory, and of his wife and son, who were 
equally zealous for the cause of the colonies. Even the Indians 
contributed by burying a cache of chipped stone blades, 
which were plowed up on the Sell farm at Teaguetown. 

Family names here include Raper, Smith, Hayworth, Bo- 
denheimer, Newsome, Jones, Charles, and Swaim. 

Union Cross 

Union Cross is located at the junction of the Kernersville 
and High Point roads. Store, school, and church serve the 



Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 135 

community. Among familiar names in this section are Smith, 
Williard, Weavil, Bodenheimer, and Tucker. 



Dennis 

In Salem Chapel township is the flag-stop on the Norfolk 
& Western Railway known as Dennis. John D. Waddill, a 
resident of the past generation, was a large landowner here. 
Because of his extensive property he was known throughout 
the county as the Earl of Dennis. Other family names in the 
vicinity include Marshall and Fulp. 

DONNAHA 

Donnaha is located under the hill of the Old Richmond 
Courthouse site. Although located along the Southern Rail- 
way and the Yadkin River, it never grew up. Some say that 
the name is derived from early settlers; others, that it is named 
for an Indian chief. Certainly the river valley at Donnaha was 
once the location of a large Indian village. Many objects of 
Indian origin have been found at this site, and enough of them 
to fill a large show case are now in the Wachovia Museum. 

Idols 

Idols is just a flag-stop on the Southern Railway at the end 
of the trestle across the Yadkin River beyond Clemmons. It 
is named for the Idol family. It has the distinction, however, 
of being the site of the first hydro-electric plant in the South 
for transmission of electric power to distant communities. 
This plant was built in 1898 by Henry E. Fries, manager of 
the Fries Manufacturing and Power Company. The name 
Idols replaced the older one, Douthit's Ferry. 



136 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Bannertown 

East of Rural Hall is a district formerly known locally as 
Bannertown. Descendants of Henry Banner, the first settler 
in the neighborhood, are numerous there. 

The Banner home was on the old Virginia Trail south of 
Germanton and was the scene of many stirring events in 
colonial days. It was raided fourteen times during the French 
and Indian War. 

TOBACCOVILLE 

West of Rural Hall is the small settlement of Tobaccoville, 
the only location in the state bearing the name of the famous 
weed that has brought so much wealth to Virginia and the 
Carolinas. Familiar family names of the Tobaccoville neigh- 
borhood are Long, Wolf, Speas, Shamel, and Doub. 

Reynolda 

The traveler on Highway 421 finds at the city limits of 
Winston-Salem a scene of great beauty as he journeys west- 
ward. Here is a three-lane highway bordered by maple trees, 
gorgeously colored in the fall of the year. On the right is 
Reynolda Park, one of the most beautiful residential areas of 
the city; on the left is Graylyn chateau, erected by the Gray 
family; a little farther on is the ultra-modern Summit School. 

These developments have come through the original devel- 
opment of the Reynolda Estate, the home of the late Mr. and 
Mrs. R. J. Reynolds, which is still occupied by members of 
the family, Mr. and Mrs. Charles H. Babcock. 

"Reynolda House" is a large, rambling structure of white 
plaster, beautifully designed in the English manner, with 
spacious grounds and gardens. Rows of weeping cherries, 
narcissi, magnolias, and thousands of daffodils extend through- 
out the wooded section. West of the residence lies Reynolda 



Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 137 

Village, with its English-type cottages and other buildings of 
white plaster, including the quaint blacksmith shop, postoffice, 
greenhouse, and the charming little ivy-covered Presbyterian 
Church, which was dedicated in 19 15, and is the center of 
the community. 

The farm purchased by Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds about 1909, 
had only an old farmhouse and the fabulous "Fourteen Min- 
eral Springs" (a different mineral in each!). With additional 
purchases of adjoining lands, it has grown into an estate of 
approximately one thousand acres, w^hich includes the Old 
Town Club with its magnificent golf course, and some three 
hundred acres donated by the owners to become the future 
campus of Wake Forest College. 

The Village of Hanes 

Pleasantly situated on the outskirts of Winston-Salem is the 
industrial community of Hanes. Its history is woven inex- 
tricably into the pattern of progress of the southern textile 
industry, more particularly of the North Carolina textile 
industry. 

In 19 10 and 191 1 the Hanes village and first spinning plant 
were constructed. The plant was built for the purpose of 
manufacturing high-grade yarn for use in the knitted prod- 
ucts produced at the P. H. Hanes Knitting Company's plant 
in Winston-Salem. Beginning with 15,000 spindles, the Hanes 
Spinning Plant has kept pace with the growth of the industry, 
and in order to meet the increasing demand for Hanes prod- 
ucts, which have become known throughout the nation for 
their quality and value, the number of spindles has increased 
until today they are more than three times their original 
number. 

In the village the recent construction of many additional 
houses of the most modern type and the modernization of 
others have provided the residents with the means for whole- 



13 8 Forsyth, a County on the March 

some American living of high standard. Free garden space is 
furnished. In addition, the company has provided the resi- 
dents at Hanes with churches, a school, a modern cafeteria, 
paved streets, water supply, sewerage system, and fire protec- 
tion. A volunteer fire department is equipped with a modem 
truck and the latest in fire-fighting apparatus. 

Adjacent to the village, which, incidentally, has its own 
postofiice, is a twenty-acre recreation area for use by the em- 
ployees and their families. It contains a model ball park 
equipped with underground sprinkler system and grandstand, 
bleachers, and a modern field house. There are also softball 
diamonds and a large wooded area in which are located a rustic 
pavilion, outdoor ovens, and barbecue pits, where employee 
picnics and other social events may be held. 

Other Communities 

North of the city is the Mineral Springs development. Its 
county high school was destroyed by fire and has been re- 
placed by a beautiful new building. Also to the north is 
Ogburn Station. Along the road to Walkertown is Daisy, and 
along the Rural Hall Road are Marvin Chapel and Stanley- 
ville. Tiretown derives its name from the automobile tire 
factory that once operated in the vicinity. 

East of the city, on a long ridge, is City View, and beyond 
is Guthrie, its school long abandoned. West of the city, near 
Muddy Creek, is the Fraternity community, originally 
settled by members of the Dunkard Church. 

New Eden has developed out of Yontztown, a suburban 
settlement along the Old Lexington Road. Half a mile south 
is Union Ridge. A recent development is Weston, bordering 
the Winston-Salem Southbound Railway and Waughtown- 
Clemmons Road. South of the city Konnoak Hills was de- 
veloped as a residential community. West of this area, border- 
ing the Waughtown-Clemmons Road, Philip W. Mock made 



Smaller Towns, Villages, and Hamlets 139 

a subdivision of his farm, which has grown up into the Rose- 
mont community. 

Centerville, Sunnyside, and Waughtown have been incor- 
porated into the city. Centerville was so called because it was 
located between Salem and Waughtown. Sunnyside was 
named for the plantation of E. A. Vogler in that area. Waugh- 
town was first called Charlestown or Baggetown for its 
founder Charles Bagge. Later the family name of a prominent 
resident brought the change to Waughtown. No members of 
the Waugh family live there today. 

North Winston was once known as Liberty. The name 
was given by a Moravian Brother who rebelled against the 
restrictions of Old Salem and built his home where he could 
enjoy more freedom. Liberty Street perpetuates the name. 
South Liberty Street was first called Salt Street because the 
salt supply of the town of Salem was kept in a house on that 
street. 

Much of the material on Forsyth's smaller communities is 
fragmentary and much of it will pass away with the memories 
of the older inhabitants. Still retained are the names of the 
rural districts Dozier, Seward (home of the well-known base- 
ball player, Rabbit Whitman) , Vienna with its county school, 
and Valley View. Gone and well-nigh forgotten are such 
former place names as Jerusalem Meadows, Stumptown, 
Louse Level, and Spanish Grove. 




VI 

RURAL FORSYTH 




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THE first people to penetrate what is now Forsyth 
County probably were hunters, enjoying the hunt- 
er's paradise which extended throughout all of this 
part of the country. Long after 1700, big game 
could be found throughout most of North Carolina. Bears, 
deer, and other choice animals persisted until well up into the 
eighteenth century. 

The Forest Primeval 

This whole area was largely an unbroken forest. Here and 
there, Indians had cleared small patches to grow a little corn. 
But for the greater part, a perfect stand of timber awaited any 
permanent settler who came to claim it. What we have left 
today suggests what was standing when the first settlers came. 
Of all the really valuable trees, only one species has vanished 
from the scene— the chestnut. Until as late as the first quarter 
of this century, chestnut was plentiful over all this part of 
North Carolina, Forsyth County included. Shortly after the 
turn of this century, the chestnut bHght invaded the region 
and within a space of twenty-five years destroyed every 
chestnut tree throughout the length and breadth of the East- 
ern divide. 

There were sections of the United States where heavier 
stands of timber could be found than in the primeval area that 
is now Forsyth County, but nowhere was the quality better. 
All of the hard woods common to the eastern part of the 
United States were found here. Pine timber flourished every- 
where and in the early days forest pines covered most of the 
ridges and sometimes extended well down into the lowlands. 
Poplar, one of the soft woods, was found everywhere and 
was widely used in furniture in the early days, particularly in 
lighter articles; black walnut was largely used for the finer 
pieces of furniture. 

The first people to penetrate this section were attracted by 
the same things that attracted the Moravian colony. Material 

143 



144 Forsyth, a County on the March 

out of which to build their homes was important. But the 
ground beneath the trees was equally important. Nowhere in 
the county was there a barren acre of land, possibly excepting 
swamp land along some of the larger streams. 

It is probable that the first people to settle permanently in 
the region now known as Forsyth County came around 1 740, 
or shortly thereafter, for it is known that there were perma- 
nent settlements in Eastern North Carolina as early as 1663. 

These early folks had just two ways to fill their larder— 
with their flint-lock muskets or with crude farming tools. 
They soon found that the fertile soil lent itself to gardening, 
and gardens were their first permanent sources of food. Little 
by httle, the frontiersmen pushed the forests back, using the 
logs to build their cabins and the fields that were cleared to 
produce crops. Corn was already the staple crop in all of this 
section of North Carolina by the time the first permanent 
villages were established, for in the short space of approxi- 
mately one hundred and fifty years after Sir Walter Raleigh's 
colonists found the Indians of Eastern North Carolina raising 
small nubbins on the sandy tidewater soil, the white man had 
developed corn to the place where it yielded well. Even be- 
fore the Moravians arrived, a little wheat and a little rye were 
being reaped, although it was rather late that bread, other 
than "corn pone," became a standard part of the diet. The 
earliest recorded data show that cabbage, potatoes, and field 
peas came in with the settlers. Early records refer to sallet, by 
which turnips were meant. It is probable that a few fruit 
trees— apples, peaches, pears, and quinces— were already grow- 
ing here by 1740. 

The earliest clothing of our citizens reflected largely what 
was found in nature. For men and sometimes for women the 
skins of animals caught in the chase were converted into cloth- 
ing. The men wore buckskin breeches, buckskin hunting 
shirts, buckskin leggings, and often, in the very earliest days, 
moccasins such as the Indians themselves wore. 



Rural Forsyth 145 

Flax was one of the earliest fibres produced in the colonies 
and, naturally, in this county. Up to 1800, flax was the cheap- 
est material for clothing available. Around 1 800, flax sold for 

1 ^2 shillings a pound, wool for 2 shillings, and cotton for 

2 ^2 shiUings. It was felt that it was almost necessary to have 
sheep to produce woolen clothes. At first, sheep raising was 
effected under great difficulties, for the heavily forested 
countryside was the natural sanctuary for bears, panthers, 
wolves, foxes, and a great many other predatory animals. It 
was only as sizeable openings in the land were cleared and 
substantial barns were built that it was possible to raise the 
kind of livestock the modern farm would suggest. 

It will be remembered that cotton was produced with great 
effort up to the time of the invention of the cotton gin. In 
fact, it was not until early in the nineteenth century that 
cotton assumed a sizeable place in the economy of this or of 
any other Southern county. In the latter part of the eight- 
eenth century, cotton was raised in the gardens along with 
vegetables, not being regarded as a field crop at all. 

In short, it might be said that in 1740 and for a quarter of 
a century thereafter, the present Forsyth County was as much 
a part of the frontier as any of the counties farther west were 
to be as civilization headed toward the Pacific Coast. 

Pioneer Citizens 

Pioneer citizens of Forsyth County naturally sought the 
best land in the county. This land lay along the Yadkin River 
and other streams which watered the region. The large planta- 
tions on the Yadkin River and some comparable estates on the 
smaller streams lent themselves, in many instances, to the use 
of slaves. Cotton was grown in some degree, and corn was 
universally cultivated. As early as Revolutionary War days, 
a few rather substantial homes dotted what is now Forsyth 
County and naturally were constructed of the best lumber 



146 Forsyth, a County on the March 

virgin forests could supply. Every decade brought its new 
crop of homes, each a little better than the rest, until the early 
county attained a degree of agricultural splendor comparable 
to the best in the South. 

Each of these ante-bellum residences marked in a sense the 
founding of a family whose names have carried with them a 
marked degree of prestige to the present day; and the ante- 
bellum farms had an influence on agriculture until well into 
the present century. 

Many of the people who populated the rural county were 
individuals who went out from the Moravian settlements. 
They bore names which indicated their origin in central 
Europe. Others came who were independent of the Moravian 
settlements, with origins in all parts of continental Europe as 
well as the British Isles. 

Inasmuch as these families have had a tremendous influence 
upon the whole history of the county, a mention of a number 
of them with the neighborhoods where they resided will not 
be out of place. In each of the instances cited here, the resi- 
dence that is mentioned continues as a landmark in its 
community. 

The Reverend John Alspaugh, who was a father of the 
Methodist Church in Forsyth and adjoining counties, built a 
home near Muddy Creek, about a mile below where Mill 
Creek flows into that stream, in the summer of 1855. 

One of the very few residences financed wholly with cur- 
rency of the Confederate States of America was built by John 
Hastings during the period of the War between the States, 
and is located on the highway between Kernersville and 
Union Cross. 

Christian Conrad was one of the first to bringr the Conrad 
name to this part of the South. He came from Pennsylvania 
in 1765, and was followed shortly by his brother, Johann 
Conrad. Finally Isaac Conrad built the Conrad residence 
which now stands near Vienna, on Highway 421. The Au- 



Rural Forsyth 147 

gustus Eugene Conrad home, known as Hilltops House, 
overlooking the Yadkin River a mile south of Highway 42 1 , 
now owned by W. J. Conrad, Jr., possibly is among the best 
examples of the plantation home to be found anywhere on 
the Yadkin River. Meanwhile, the Conrad name has spread 
throughout all this section. 

The Elijah B. Teague residence, an eleven-room house a 
few miles south of Kernersville, was a local political center 
for many years before the Civil War. Elijah Teague repre- 
sented the county many times in the General Assembly. His 
son. Dr. M. E. Teague, was sheriff of Forsyth County for one 
term, and was involved in what was perhaps the most sensa- 
tional political controversy in the history of the county. He 
was pitted against Jack Boyer in his race for sheriff. The 
vote was exceedingly close, and the election was contested. 
No decision was ever reached during Dr. Teague's tenure of 
office as sheriff. The litigation was so costly that the Teague 
fortune was practically wiped out. Dr. Teague served as 
sheriff, although it was never settled legally whether he was 
elected, and he did not run for re-election. In the late 90's he 
was Chief of Police in Winston. The old home has long since 
passed out of the hands of the family. 

Wesley Raper inherited land on Abbotts Creek which con- 
tinues among the best in the county today. The residence he 
built, partially with slave labor, still reflects the conditions 
before the war— solid comfort, a plentiful larder, and an ap- 
preciation of the luxury of leisure. Mr. and Mrs. J. R. 
Chamberlain now own and occupy the Raper home. 

Many people tried to build their homes on North Caro- 
lina's Main Street, the Fayetteville and Western Plank Road. 
Jasper Raper was one of these. The home he built at Union 
Cross was started six years before the Civil War. 

Dave Smith, according to family tradition, was putting the 
roof on his home near Union Cross one day in August, 1861, 
when a neighbor brought the news that South Carolina had 



148 Forsyth, a County on the March 

seceded from the Union. The story says further that all of 
the workers laid down their tools and proceeded to discuss 
the possible consequences of this sensational action. 

John Reich acquired the land on Old Salisbury Road just 
south of Lockland Avenue extended, where he built a home 
about 1840 and 1841, and passed still another family name 
down to posterity. 

The Theophilus Kimel residence on Ebert Street Extension 
was built in 1868 and 1869. Hulon Post Office was operated 
in this residence for many years prior to about 1900. 

Miller is a name widely scattered through the county. John 
Thomas Miller built a home west of Rural Hall and a little 
south of Tobaccoville, near the forks of the Muddy and 
Barker creeks, long before the Civil War. 

Dempsey B. Clinard built a home two years after the Civil 
War near Wallburg. The name, like the house, is widely 
known in the county. 

Six generations of the John J. Miller family have occupied 
an old residence this pioneer built in 18 17 overlooking the 
Yadkin River. It was a stage-coach stopover for many years. 

This was not far removed from the John Wesley Boner 
house. John Wesley Boner was a distant cousin of John Henry 
Boner, the widely known Moravian poet, who is buried in the 
Moravian Graveyard in Salem. 

Dr. x\lexander Wharton was one of the best-known prac- 
ticing physicians the county ever had. He built his home at 
Clemmons one year before the beginning of the war with 
Mexico. He practiced over most of the county, and his kin 
are scattered throughout this section. 

Did Peter Clemmons build the long, rambling house that 
is generally recognized as the oldest residence in Clemmons? 
No one seems to know definitely now. It is known that Peter 
Clemmons, for whom Clemmons is named, was born in Del- 
aware in 1749, and that he married twice and had fourteen 
children. Late in life he wrote a book entitled "Poor Peter's 



Rural Forsyth 149 

Call to His Children." It is a clever little book and was printed 
at Salisbury. Only a few copies of it are now extant. The 
family of the late Colonel W. A. Blair and Mrs. J. J. Harris, 
a kinsman of Peter Clemmons, own copies, the only ones 
known to be still in existence. 

A later owner of the Clemmons House, Benton Douthit, 
operated a general store there which rivaled all other mer- 
chandising businesses in this part of the state. People came 
from several counties to avail themselves of the unusual goods 
the proprietor brought down from Baltimore and New York. 
It is related that Benton Douthit brought to Forsyth County 
the first piece of carpet ever sold which was not produced on 
a hand loom. 

While Henry Clay and John Caldwell Calhoun were still 
twin giants in the legislative halls, one Harrison Byerly built 
a pretentious home on Mickey Mill Road. The Byerly name 
and this old residence are widely known in the county. 

In northeast Forsyth, on the Walnut Cove Road, the Matt 
Marshall residence still houses a part of a distinguished family 
whose name has gone out across the countryside. 

Colonel Henry Shouse was one of the venturesome pio- 
neers who recognized the merits of land at the headwaters of 
a small stream. His old home, built about 1800, is just a few 
rods across the road south of the Forsyth County Tuberculosis 
Hospital. 

Julius A. Transou built a home at Pfafftown five years 
before the Civil War. The name is well and widely known. 

These are a few of the rural citizens of this county who 
came into prominence during the first half of the last century. 
In most instances their parents had laid the groundwork in 
rural Forsyth. They did the actual building. Their sons and 
daughters and grandsons and granddaughters are among the 
best citizens we now have. 

In the following section something will be said about a 
number of individuals who in those early days strode con- 



150 Forsyth, a County on the March 

fidently across the stage of history and made their influence 
felt, not only locally, but nationally. 



Some Outstanding Men 

With so many people of good blood strains coming into 
the county, it was inevitable that some of them should become 
leaders on a level other than the purely local. One of the best 
examples of this is the Williams family, many members of 
which have distinguished themselves in Forsyth or wherever 
else they have gone. 

Nathaniel Williams, a native of Hanover County, Virginia, 
was the progenitor of the Williams family. One of his four 
sons, Joseph, emigrated to North Carolina, and about 1750 
married Rebecca Lanier of Granville County. They soon 
moved to what was then Surry County, now western Forsyth 
County, and settled about three miles from Shallow Ford on 
a stream called Panther Creek. They developed a splendid 
farm during the next two decades and became the owners of 
many slaves. Then came the War of the Revolution. Joseph 
Williams commanded a regiment and served all through the 
war. He was in many skirmishes with the Tories and, in the 
words of one writer, became "very obnoxious to the Tories." 

On one occasion when he was away fighting, his wife, 
being forewarned of the approach of Cornwallis and the Brit- 
ish Regulars, took her two-weeks-old son, Nathaniel, and a 
slave woman, and hid in the forest until Cornwallis had 
crossed the Yadkin River at Shallow Ford and moved on 
toward the northeast. 

When she returned home, she found that the enemy had 
stripped the farm of everything except the residence itself and 
the slave quarters. She hastily made such provisions as she 
could for her two older sons and for the slaves, and took 
her young baby on horseback to Granville County, where her 



Rural Forsyth 151 

relatives lived. Although the country was teeming with Tories 
and was made up largely of woodland, she arrived safely at 
the end of her journey, herself unharmed. But the little boy 
never recovered from the effects of his exposure in the more 
than twenty years he survived. 

This distinguished family included ten sons and two daugh- 
ters. The two daughters, Rebecca and Fannie, married well. 
Except for the invalid son, Nathaniel, all of the boys likewise 
distinguished themselves on a local, state, or national level. 

Robert was the oldest. After several years in public life, 
he was elected to Congress and served from 1797 to 1803. In 
1805 he was appointed commissioner of land titles in the 
Mississippi Territory, and served four years. He then took up 
his residence in Tennessee and later moved to Louisiana, 
where he spent the closing years of his life. Incidentally, he 
was grand master of Masons in all of North Carolina and 
Tennessee. 

Joseph, the second son, while spending his childhood in this 
area, spent most of his adult life in Yadkin and what is now 
Surry County. He acquired large land holdings in Yadkin 
County, opposite the present village of Rockford. He was 
clerk of Surry Superior Court for many years. 

John, the third son, likewise moved away from Panther 
Creek early in life, going to Knoxville, Tennessee, where he 
became an eminent lawyer. He fought with distinction in the 
Seminole War, and upon his return found the commission of 
Colonel of the 39th Regiment of Infantry, U. S. Army, await- 
ing him. He was ordered to the Creek Indian Nation, where, 
in the Battle of the Horse Shoe, his regiment bore the brunt 
of the action. General Andrew Jackson's report of the battle, 
which, of course, was an overwhelming victory for the Army, 
did not, in the opinion of Colonel Williams, do justice to his 
regiment. This led to a lifelong enmity between them. 

Colonel Williams was elected to the United States Senate 



152 Forsyth, a County on the March 

and served from 18 15 to 1823. In 1825 he was named envoy to 
the Central American States. He died at Knoxville, Tennessee, 
August 7, 1837. 

From the point of view of Forsyth County citizens, Lewis 
Williams, the fifth son, was most distinguished of all the 
family. He graduated from the University of North Carolina 
in 1808 and entered public life as a member of the North 
Carolina General Assembly in 18 13. Following his second 
term in the legislature, he was elected to the Lower House of 
Congress. He entered Congress in 1 8 1 5 and served as a mem- 
ber of the House until his death, February 23, 1842. 

It is said of him that he was greatly esteemed for his ster- 
ling independence and his integrity. His abilities were such 
that by common consent he was styled "the Father of the 
House." President Adams paid him a splendid oratorical trib- 
ute after his death. He is buried in the family graveyard at 
Panther Creek. He never married. 

Thomas Lanier Williams, twin brother of Lewis Williams, 
was another who moved westward early in life. He w^as long 
the Chancellor of the State of Tennessee. His descendants 
have continued to be prominent citizens of Tennessee down to 
the present day. 

Dr. Alexander Williams followed his other brothers west- 
ward and became a widely known citizen of Greenville, Ten- 
nessee. He took a prominent place in the professional and 
social life of that state. 

Nicholas Lanier Williams, the youngest of the sons, spent 
his entire life at Panther Creek. He lived to be a very old 
man. He was a member of North Carohna's Council of State 
and a Trustee of the University. It is said of him that he dis- 
pensed a most lavish hospitality until the end of the Civil 
War brought the changes that broke up so many Southern 
homes. 

Such is the story of one of the most illustrious families this 
county and the state have ever had. Descendants of these 



Rural Forsyth 153 

twelve men and women are scattered up and down the coun- 
tryside under the WiUiams name and the names introduced 
by marriage. And it is interesting to note that, while the 
family underwent the ruin incident to the Civil War, its 
stability was such that the pioneer homestead is still the 
property of members of the family. It reflects the strength of 
character that characterized so many hundreds of families 
who came early to populate this section of the state. 

It would be unfair to leave this period in the history of 
Forsyth County and not mention another man who figured 
prominently in local, state, and pubHc affairs for a protracted 
period, for he spent his decHning years within what are now 
the corporate limits of Winston-Salem. This man was Augus- 
tine Henry Shepperd. He was born at Rockford, in Surry 
County, February 24, 1792. For a time he practiced law, and 
then entered politics. From 1822 to 1826 he served in the 
lower house of Congress. Those were days of changing polit- 
ical complexion throughout the country. It is noteworthy that 
he was an elector for the Calhoun-Jackson candidacies in 
1824. For a time he dropped out of Congress, apparently hav- 
ing been defeated in his race for re-election, but he served 
in Congress from March 4, 1827, through March 3, 1839. 
He was beaten in his race for membership in the 26th Con- 
gress, but he was elected again on the Whig ticket and 
returned to Congress March 4, 1841. He was an elector again, 
this time on the Whig ticket for Clay and Frelinghuysen in 
1844. Girding himself anew, he campaigned and won his seat 
twice more, serving in the 30th and 3 ist Congresses, terminat- 
ing his stewardship March 3, 1851. He had declined to seek 
re-election in the campaign of 1850. 

The point that gives him a place in Forsyth County history 
is that in October of 1842 he bought forty-one acres of land 
from the Moravian Church, obviously the site for a future 
home. This land lay a few rods east of what are now Var- 
grave and Waughtown streets in Winston-Salem. One of the 



154 Forsyth, a County on the March 

largest springs in Forsyth County watered this property and 
was the source of water for the splendid old residence which 
it is reasonably certain the veteran Congressman built on the 
property. Credence is lent to this assumption by the fact that 
authenticated records indicate that Augustine Henry Shep- 
perd "died at Good Spring in Salem, July ii, 1864." In any 
event, the town of Salem tapped this spring and used it as a 
part of its water supply for a long time. It is now used by the 
R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company in its nicotine plant located 
near by. 

In this connection, the name of another distinguished For- 
syth County leader comes to mind, that of Charlie A. 
Reynolds, who near the end of the last century was one of 
the most important political figures in North Carolina. He 
was born November 10, 1848, at Madison in Rockingham 
County. He was educated at Princeton University. He 
married Miss Carrie Watkins Fretwell of Rockingham 
County. In 1884 Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds came to North 
Carolina. 

Mr. Reynolds attended Princeton University because at 
the time when he normally would have entered college, the 
University of North Carolina was closed temporarily because 
of the aftermath of the Civil War. 

In his capacity as a construction engineer, iMr. Reynolds 
aided H. E. Fries of Winston-Salem in the construction of 
the hydro-electric plant on the Yadkin River, the first such 
plant ever built in this state. Power from that plant ran street- 
cars in Winston-Salem, believed to be the second city in the 
United States to have streetcars powered by electricity. Rich- 
mond, Virginia, is considered the first. 

Later, he repeated this achievement at Asheville. He engi- 
neered the power plant on the Ivey River near Asheville, 
which was the first plant actually to supply that city with 
sufficient electricity to meet its needs. The dam that im- 
pounded the water for that plant was 6^ feet high. 



Rural Forsyth 155 

Reynolds witnessed the building of the first improved roads 
in North Carolina. Indeed, he constructed the first macadam- 
ized road in Forsyth County. On the south side of Salem 
Creek, on what was known as Centerville Street, now Waugh- 
town Street, there existed such an impossible barrier of mud 
that Reynolds went to the county commissioners and asked 
permission to use convicts to break stone and place it on the 
road. This was about 1890, and the results achieved were re- 
garded with such favor that the county later built much 
macadamized road mileage, some of which exists today as 
asphalt treated highways. 

Reynolds held only minor political offices down to the 
nineties. He was appointed United States deputy collector 
and held that position at Reidsville for about five years. 
In 1896 he was elected lieutenant-governor and took office in 

1897- 

Possibly the most important piece of legislation that came 
up during his four-year tenure of office (during which of 
course he was president of the State Senate), was defeated. 
Governor Daniel L. Russell pushed a bill which would have 
made the lease of the North Carolina Railroad invalid. The 
railroad had been constructed under the administration of 
Governor John Motley Morehead. It had been leased under 
the Governor Ehas Kerr administration to the Richmond and 
Danville Railway, and that line later became a part of the 
Southern Railway. The bill was passed by the House of Rep- 
resentatives and came up for action in the Senate. It was 
beaten in the Senate by one vote. Thus the good name of the 
state was saved. North Carolina was kept from repudiating its 
own action, which had been taken a few years before in good 
faith. 

Although Lieutenant-Governor Reynolds was the state's 
second citizen in a period when politics was in a state of great 
turmoil, it can be said to his credit that he consistently de- 
clined to involve himself in acts which would have brought 



156 Forsyth, a County on the March 

him personal shame and shame upon the honor of the state. 
Twice, Hke Caeser, the Forsyth County man was offered the 
highest position in the state, and twice he decHned it because 
he could have had it only through a political "trade" which 
he regarded as highly dishonorable. When Russell and Rey- 
nolds went in as governor and lieutenant-governor respec- 
tively in 1897, United States Senators were elected by the 
legislature. Jeter C. Pritchard had been elected for a short 
term of two years in 1895. Marion Butler, Sr., had been elected 
to the long term of six years. 

As the new administration took ofHce (the result of a 
Fusion Campaign), it found the Populist element eager to 
elect Judge Clark or the Governor himself to the senatorial 
vacancy about to occur. Of course the Pritchard supporters 
were eager to return him to office. The fight was a political 
classic. As the day for the vote drew near, events took a 
dramatic turn. Friends of Governor Russell approached Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Reynolds and suggested that he withdraw 
his support from Pritchard. Had he done this, Russell would 
have been elected by an easy margin. Naturally Russell would 
have resigned the governorship at once to become United 
States Senator. According to the law of the state, Reynolds 
would have become governor. But Reynolds refused to desert 
Pritchard, threw his whole support to him and, when the vote 
was cast, was forced to break the tie and therefore was 
charged with the responsibility of electing the United States 
Senator. 

The second and even more dramatic chance that Reynolds 
had to become governor of North Carolina was in 1899. The 
chief justiceship of the State Supreme Court was vacant. It 
was necessary to appoint a man to the office immediately. 
Just at that time Lieutenant-Governor Reynolds received a 
call to come to Washington. 

Taking his legal counsel, Judge Spencer B. Adams, with 
him, Reynolds went to Washington and sat down for a con- 



Rural Forsyth 157 

ference with Senator Pritchard, Vice-President A. B. An- 
drews of the Southern Railway, Judge E. W. Timberlake, 
and others. This time it was suggested that he "sit tight," 
allow Governor Dan Russell to resign, and then accept in due 
course of law the governorship of the state. It would then be 
easy for him as governor to appoint Russell to the chief jus- 
ticeship. That was no violation of legal regulation. It could 
be done without any difficulty. 

Lieutenant-Governor Reynolds heard them through and 
then exploded in his wrath. "Gentlemen, I won't do it," he is 
reported to have said, after he had regained his composure. 
"What would it mean to the reputation of each man con- 
cerned? It would mean the ruination of every person im- 
plicated. I'll have nothing to do with it." That ended the 
interview. Governor Russell eventually appointed Charles A. 
Cook, of Warren County, to the Supreme Court bench, 
advancing D. M. Furches, who already was on the bench, to 
the position of chief justice. 

How was the name of Lieutenant-Governor Reynolds 
connected with that of the late Congressman Shepperd? 
Simply in this fashion. Within a few years after the death of 
the veteran Congressman Shepperd, Air. and Mrs. Reynolds 
acquired the old residence at Good Spring and spent the 
remainder of their lives there and at a country residence a few 
miles south of Kernersville. 

The political complexion of the state changed after the 
Russell administration, and the fiery old Lieutenant-Governor 
returned to business in Forsyth County. He was a member of 
the Draft Board in Forsyth County during World War I 
under appointment of Governor T. W. Bickett. His late 
years were taken up largely with the management of his 
properties here in the county. 

Thus we see, in members of the Williams, Shepperd, and 
Reynolds families, examples of the varied political leadership 
which has sprung from the vigorous stock which populated 



158 Forsyth, a County on the March 

this county. Many others could be mentioned who played 
major roles at one time or another, but none from the strictly 
rural sections of the county who attained to such heights. 

Agriculture in Forsyth County 

The changes in the life of rural Forsyth County people as 
they relate to politics, education, domestic facilities, com- 
munication, transportation and other aspects, have been in the 
past two centuries no greater than the changes in agriculture. 
The county has advanced from the age of the bull- 
tongue plow through the era of the Dixie plow and the one- 
bottom turning plow down to the age of hea\y tractors and 
rotary tillers. It has been a change from the ox and the skinny 
little mule to heavy gasoline-powered machinery. It has been 
a change from an all-row-crop system to a day when grass 
farming is coming into its own. 

Our agricultural system has advanced from the stage where 
it implied all labor on the part of the farmer, through a stage 
when slave labor held a major place, and through a stage 
where the slave system was banished. It went through a period 
which might be called the Dark Ages in agriculture as far as 
any real achievement was concerned. In the days immediately 
following the Civil War our whole economy was in a state 
of collapse. Bishop Rondthaler related that as he came down 
from Pennsylvania in 1877 to assume the pastorate of Salem 
congregation, he inquired about the large bundles which lay 
on the railway platforms in Virginia and North Carolina. He 
learned that these bundles were dried blackberries which had 
been picked by the impoverished people to be shipped to 
Northern states for food and other purposes. These, he said, 
in that Dark Age constituted some of the most considerable 
shipments which went out from this section. 

It was not until the turn of the century that rural Forsyth 
began to benefit under the slight awakening that took place. 



Rural Forsyth 159 

Governor Charles Brantley Aycock, who took office then, 
went about the state preaching education and ultimately died 
on the speaker's platform with the word "education" on 
his lips. With education, there was a quickening of the eco- 
nomic pulse. Forsyth County had its share of "Farmer's In- 
stitutes." And then in the early teens, the Extension Service 
came into existence. Farm agents and home demonstration 
agents began to teach farmers the fundamental principles of 
field and animal husbandry. In the late teens and early twen- 
ties, there was an industrial renaissance. Markets began to 
develop and with the first crude passenger automobiles and 
auto trucks pushing their way into the hinterland improved 
roads were in demand. At first macadamized roads, such as the 
ones with which C. A. Reynolds pioneered, threaded their 
way across the country. 

The period from 1900 to 1949 was a period of great awaken- 
ing. In other words, the second half of our first century as a 
county was the half which brought more development than 
the county ever had seen before. This was as true in Forsyth 
agriculture as in the urban centers. 

True, there were ambitious early beginnings on the part of 
men and women with perspective. There were many leaders 
far ahead of their day. And they made their mark. It was sig- 
nificant that as far back as 1882 and 1883, H. E. Fries and 
Dr. H. T. Bahnson had farms on which they bred registered 
Guernsey cattle. Mr. Fries and Dr. Bahnson got their start 
with Guernseys from W. P. Hazard of Chester, Pennsylvania. 
This was just before the beginning of the North Carolina 
Exposition held in Raleigh in the fall of 1884, promoted 
largely by Mr. Fries, its secretary. William S. Primrose, 
Raleigh, w^as president of the Exposition. 

Because of the close friendship between Mr. Fries and Mr. 
Primrose, Mr. Fries named his dairy Primrose Farm. This 
meant that some of the outstanding cattle from his farm 
carried the name "Primrose." Down to the present day, that 



i6o Forsyth, a County on the March 

name continues to crop up among pedigreed cattle. In 1946 
Quail Roost Farm, owned by George Watts Hill at Rouge- 
mont, sold Quail Roost Noble Primrose, a mature cow, for 
$17,000.00. W. W. Fitzpatrick, manager of Quail Roost 
Farm, at the request of Mr. Fries in 1948, searched the 
pedigree of Quail Roost Noble Primrose and found that she 
was descended directly from animals owned on Primrose 
Farm nearly seventy years ago. 

It is interesting to note that pedigreed Guernsey cattle, 
directly descended from these original brood animals on the 
Fries farm, are being bred on Arden Farm at Clemmons, 
owned by Dr. Bahnson's daughter and her husband, Mr. and 
Mrs. T. Holt Haywood. 

This pioneer work in cattle breeding, therefore, was not a 
wholly useless venture. It bore fruit, even though it took more 
than half a century for it to become evident. 

There were pioneers also in other fields. Luther Strupe of 
the Tobaccoville community early in the century was produc- 
ing seed corn that was considered the best to be found in the 
South. On the basis of his seed-corn production and other 
farming practices, he was named a Master Farmer. 

In those years between the turn of the century and the 
early 30's, too, J. M. Jarvis of the Clemmons community, was 
producing Jarvis' Golden Prohfic seed corn, which was 
known throughout many of the southeastern states. He pur- 
sued the breeding of corn until the middle thirties when he 
was too old to do field work any more, but he never gave it 
up until his name was synonymous with good farming prac- 
tices over a wide territory. 

Meanwhile, R. F. Linville, who resided a few miles east 
of \A'inston-Salem, between the two highways leading from 
Winston-Salem to Kernersville, engaged in corn breeding at 
great length. He developed some of the seed strains which Mr. 
Jarvis had used to an even greater degree than Mr. Jarvis had 
reached. Mr. Linville also anticipated by more than a quarter 



Rural Forsyth i6i 

of a century the present merits in hybrid seed corn over open 
pollinated corn. As early as the middle teens and early twen- 
ties, Mr. Linville was experimenting with the principle of 
hybrid seed production and made it work. It was not until the 
principle was applied on a wide scale in the western states 
that it became nationally popular. But it should be said to the 
credit of the Forsyth County man that he was on the track of 
a great discovery and appreciated its merits although he never 
was able to enlist the interest of any considerable number of 
farmers in it. This progress in agriculture in Forsyth County 
at first was sporadic. It had the support of individuals only 
here and there. These individuals were in effect lifting them- 
selves by their bootstraps. The first farm demonstration agents 
in this county as well as elsewhere in the state found their 
work largely the work of tutor and pupil. 

For approximately a quarter of a century, R. W. Pou did 
pioneer work as farm agent in Forsyth County, carrying the 
extension service program over the period which might 
almost be said to bridge the space between hand tools and 
complete mechanization. He laid down his reins only a few 
years ago when S. R. Mitchener, the incumbent agent, took 
over. In the women's field, the extension service program has 
been handled largely by two home demonstration agents and 
their assistants. Through the twenties and up to 193 1, Miss 
Alice McQueen was home demonstration agent. Upon her 
retirement, Mrs. Elizabeth Tuttle took over and has continued 
on the job since. The leadership she has manifested is fully 
attested by the fact that last December she was awarded the 
certificate of distinguished service by the National Associa- 
tion of Home Demonstration Agents at their annual Conven- 
tion in Chicago. In all of this work the two agents have been 
aided materially by capable assistants, many of whom each 
has trained for ranking positions elsewhere in the state. 

The changes in agriculture in the past two decades have 
been so extreme and the results have been so cumulative, that 



i62 Forsyth, a County on the March 

it is hard to predict where agriculture will be even ten years 
hence. Twenty to twenty-five years ago the system of agricul- 
ture in Forsyth County was largely a row-crop system. The 
small beginnings in the production of cattle and hogs were 
indicative of what was to come, but were not indicative of 
how great that program was to be. In the space of a quarter 
of a century, Forsyth County has become a banner county in 
the breeding of Guernsey and Holstein-Friesian milk cows 
and in the breeding of Hereford beef cattle. The expansion 
in the breeding of beef cattle has not been commensurate 
with that of the dairy breeds, but within the past four or five 
years there has been a very pronounced quickening of interest. 

Meanwhile for many years the county has produced a size- 
able number of hogs, largely Berkshires, Poland Chinas, Duroc 
Jerseys, Hampshires, and the like. Recently the Tamworth 
hog has gained wide favor in the county with the result that 
for the past two years large shipments of hogs have gone to 
Centerville, Indiana, to the annual National Tamworth Swine 
Show and Sale. In 1947 the Forsyth County consignment to 
the Show and Sale ran far ahead of any other state's consign- 
ment in the average price paid per head. 

From that sale, the Forsyth County delegation brought back 
the highest ranking Tamworth boar in the United States with 
which to build up the Forsyth County herds. In the 1948 show 
and sale, the Forsyth County consignment made an equally 
good showing, and again the Forsyth County breeders, this' 
time working as an organization, brought back the top ranking 
Tamworth boar. It may be said, therefore, that Forsyth 
County is at this writing the Tamworth capital of the world. 

Commensurate with the development of the cattle industry 
in Forsyth County has been the development of the poultry 
industry. Forsyth County does not possess any poultry breed- 
ing establishment which compares in size with such establish- 
ments as are found on the Maryland and Delaware farms, but 
the poultry breeders who operate on a small scale make up an 



Rural Forsyth 163 

aggregate business that is exceedingly large. The New Hamp- 
shire breed and New Hampshire Barred Rock Crosses are 
favored by the Forsyth County poultrymen. Many breeders 
in the Old Richmond community are producing eggs for 
hatching. 

It is significant that all of these interests centralize their 
work in organizations. The Forsyth Guernsey Breeders Asso- 
ciation and the Forsyth Holstein-Friesian Breeders Association 
are representative of the organizations through which the 
breeders effect group action. The Hereford breeders set up 
their association in late November of 1 948 and hope to enroll 
members throughout all central North Carolina not already 
affiliated. 

An illustration of the group thinking that is going on in 
Forsyth County agriculture is the flourishing Forsyth Bee- 
keepers Association. In 1947 these Beekeepers set up the 
Forsyth County unit and worked with such sustained interest 
that they w^ere able to attract the State Beekeepers Associa- 
tion to Winston-Salem for its annual meeting in 1948. For two 
successive years, Forsyth County Beekeepers have swept the 
top prizes at the North Carolina State Fair. 

More general organization of the farmers and farm women 
of the county is effected in the Forsyth Pomona Grange and 
its subordinate granges and the Forsyth County Farm Bureau, 
which works as a county-wide unit rather than breaking its 
membership down into community groups. 

One would think that the agriculture of a county would 
change but little through the years as relates to the variety of 
crops produced. Climate and rainfall are unchanging. How- 
ever, crop habits have been characterized by extraordinary 
changes. The State and United States Departments of Agri- 
culture have been engaged in constant study from the time 
they were established, seeking new outlets for the crops 
farmers produced and new crops suitable for the various sec- 
tions of the country. As greater and greater acreages of land 



164 Forsyth, a County on the March 

were cleared, and as the stumps and rocks were removed from 
land already cleared, the problem of erosion presented itself. 
Indeed, Forsyth along with the rest of the country lost fully 
one-third of its soil before it turned seriously to the control 
of running water. One of the first natural agents that came to 
the rescue of the farmer was lespedeza. It came to this section 
of the state in the teens and early twenties. It was something 
the poorest farmer could grow and it has been grown in enor- 
mous acreages ever since. Wherever it elected to take hold, it 
arrested erosion immediately. Many leaders in agriculture 
regard its arrival on the farm scene as the greatest single event 
in a hundred years. It certainly has meant that much to the 
farmers of Forsyth County. 

But other great events were to come, some of them very 
gradually. Alfalfa was one of these innovations. While alfalfa 
has been widely grown well over the United States for fifty 
years or more, it has gained favor in Forsyth County only 
slowly, but consistently. In 1948 the farmers cut hay off 
about 3,000 acres of alfalfa. 

In the early forties a smattering of farmers obtained a small 
amount of Ladino clover seed. By 1948 the county had a size- 
able acreage in this splendid pasture crop. At first it was em- 
ployed only as a grazing crop. Later farmers began to learn 
that it also was a good hay crop. Around 1946 Suiter grass 
(fescue) began to attract attention. Ejcperiments were started 
with it because it gave promise of being a winter grazing crop. 
Many Forsyth dairymen over a period of a half decade or 
more had proved that grazing for most of the winter months 
could be assured by sowing a mixture of a variety of grasses 
and small grains and forcing them with heavy applications of 
fertilizer. It is claimed that Suiter grass is a nauiral winter 
grazing crop. Forsyth farmers are open minded, waiting for 
this crop to prove itself. 

During this change in crop system, the per acre yield of 
field crops has gone up and up. For instance, in 1935 the 



Rural Forsyth 165 

average yield of corn for the state was under 20 bushels per 
acre. By 1950 in Forsyth County it is expected to be close to 
50 bushels. Before the tobacco acreage control program was 
instituted in the middle thirties, the average yield for tobacco 
was between 700 and 800 pounds per acre. In 1948 it was 
expected to run close to 1200 pounds. 

Whither are we bound in Forsyth County agriculture? 

Only time can answer that question. But it cannot be denied 
that tremendous progress has been made between the end of 
the first quarter of this century and the end of the second, not 
to speak of all the progress that was made before that time. 
The county commissioners, Mr. James G. Hanes, chairman; 
Mr. Sam Craft, and Dr. D. C. Speas made a move that was 
almost unprecedented in county government. They made a 
direct appeal to farmers to set up a board whose business 
should be to advise the county commissioners of what agri- 
culture needed in the way of county government. 

As a result, this county agricultural board was set up. It is 
representative of every township in the county, even includ- 
ing Winston township. It meets monthly or on call. Through 
it a great number of the pointed needs of agriculture have 
been brought to the attention of the county commissioners and 
have received sympathetic action. In 1946, the county com- 
missioners placed G. W. McClellan in charge of the Forsyth 
County Farm, a 700-acre tract. The change in the intervening 
period has been almost miraculous. This writer obtained pic- 
tures of cattle grazing on the County Farm on the 6th day of 
January, 1948, which was in the dead of winter. These 
pictures showed the 40-cow herd of Holsteins up to their 
fetlocks in grass, and when submitted to a forum of several 
hundred at the annual meeting of the North Carolina Dairy 
Council, even the experts were unable to distinguish them 
from pictures made in midsummer. Therefore Forsyth farmers 
have gone a long way toward controlling even the seasons. 

Meanwhile the Forsyth commissioners, on advice of the 



i66 Forsyth, a County on the March 

farmers through their advisory board, started an artificial 
insemination program in the spring of 1946. The stud included 
some of the finest Guernsey and Holstein bulls that could be 
obtained. It was the first such program started in North Caro- 
lina and has been imitated in t^vo-thirds of the counties of the 
state, although the structure is slightly different in some other 
localities. 

Furthermore, on the advice of the advisory board, the 
county commissioners purchased a heavy duty motor grader 
with which to supplement and complement the heavy duty 
renovations in roads and terracing on the farms of the county. 
This machine, operated by an expert crew, has met with 
universal approval as it has gone about the county. 

Countless lesser achievements have resulted from the studies 
of this board as it gradually got the feel of county agricultural 
planning. 

Herein is climaxed the first one hundred years of progress 
of rural Forsyth citizens. And thus auspiciously begins their 
second century of achievement. 




VII 

A CENTER OF INDUSTRY 



THE pioneers of Salem, through necessity, had cul- 
tivated an inventive and productive economy that 
made available at an early date such commodities as 
paper, pottery, guns, carriages, wagons, cloth, and 
tinware. With the first gristmill in 1755, the first flax loom 
in 1766, the first wagon works in 1787, and the first paper mill 
in 1 79 1, we find a development that had an humble start and 
gained momentum with time and the genius of the pioneers. 
Manufacturing started on a one-man-power scale as the early 
citizens began experimenting with the products of near-by 
farms. Since the most readily available raw products of the 
Carolinas were tobacco, cotton, and lumber, it was natural 
that the largest industries should center around their manu- 
facture. It was a case of local ingenuity utilizing these readily 
available raw materials and building an industrial life by con- 
ception rather than by adoption. 

The past century has brought a steady, vigorous, and suc- 
cessful business development which has captured for the 
community the well-earned title of "City of Industry." Win- 
ston-Salem is the leading industrial city of the Carolinas, and 
the third city of the South in the value of manufactured prod- 
ucts, with only Richmond and Baltimore ranking ahead. 

While many communities can claim that they are important 
manufacturing centers, few can claim that they lead the 
world in manufacture of one or more products. Winston- 
Salem comes in this latter category. The city is the world's 
largest tobacco manufacturing center, the home of the largest 
manufactory of knit underwear, and the home of the largest 
circular knit hosiery mill in the world. These three world 
leaders had their beginning in the county, they were con- 
ceived by industrially minded local citizens, and they were 
developed by local ingenuity. 



169 



lyo Forsyth, a County on the March 

The Tobacco Industry 

From the earliest days tobacco was raised in this section- 
mostly for local use with only a small amount sold elsewhere. 
As early as 1755 reference was made to a purchase by Mr. 
Loesch from Mr. Banner of "a couple of hundred tobacco 
plants." 

In 1858, just nine years after the founding of Winston, the 
first large quantity of tobacco was cultivated in the northern 
part of the county. The experiment was successful and it soon 
became evident that a very superior variety of tobacco could 
be raised in Forsyth and adjoining counties. The soil was 
found to yield rich returns of the finest "yellow leaf" tobacco, 
and had no superior "in texture, oil or aroma, not even in the 
famed leather-wood district of Henry County, Virginia." In 
1870 there were not quite two hundred and fifty thousand 
pounds raised in the county. It soon became apparent that a 
local market was needed for the sale of tobacco and in 1872 
Mayor T. J. Brown opened the first warehouse in the county 
for the sale of leaf tobacco. An old frame stable, with a fancy 
skylight added, was rented and here the sale of tobacco 
began. 

The first tobacco factory was built in 1872— a frame struc- 
ture fifty feet square, in which a score of employees were 
housed. During the next year, in July, 1873, ^^^ first railroad 
connection was made with the North Western Rail Road of 
North Carolina, and Forsyth County was afforded an outlet 
for trade. 

The following years brought an almost unbelievable devel- 
opment in the manufacturing of tobacco products. Within a 
short period of twenty-two years after the first tobacco fac- 
tory was built, we find thirty-seven concerns manufacturing 
tobacco in Winston and one in Salem. Connorton's Tobacco 
Brand Directory of the United States in 1894 contains the 
following list. 



A Center of Industry 171 

Bailey Bros., plug Winston 

Beall, Geo. H. & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Bitting & Hay, plug Winston 

Blackburn, Dalton & Co., plug Winston 

Brown Bros., plug, twist and smoking Winston 

Brown & Williamson, plug and twist Winston 

Byerly, S. & Son, smoking Winston 

Bynum, Cotten & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Candler, R. L. & Co., plug, twist and smoking Winston 

Clary, W. S. & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Ebert, Payne & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Ellis, W. B. & Co., plug, twist and smoking Winston 

Griffith & Bohannon, plug and twist Winston 
Hamlen, Liipfert & Co., plug, twist and smoking Winston 

Hanes, B. F., plug and twist Winston 

Hanes, P. H. & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Harvey & Rintels, plug and twist Winston 

Hodgin Bros. & Lunn, plug and smoking Winston 

Jones, Cox & Co., plug Winston 

Kerner, Newton & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Leak, T. F. Tob. Co., smoking Winston 

Lockett, Vaughn & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Ogburn, Hill & Co., plug Winston 

Ogburn, M. L., plug Winston 

Ogburn, S. A., plug and twist Winston 

Reynolds Bros., plug Winston 

Reynolds, H. H., plug, twist and smoking Winston 

Reynolds, R. J. Tob. Co., plug and twist Winston 

Smith, W. F. & Son, smoking and cigarettes Winston 

Taylor Bros., plug, twist and smoking Winston 

Vaughn, T. L. & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Walker Bros., plug Winston 

Whitaker, W. A., plug, twist and smoking Winston 

Williamson, T. F. & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Williamson Tob. Co., plug Winston 



172 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Wilson, N. S. & T. J., plug Winston 

Wood, W. W. & Co., plug and twist Winston 

Nissen, J. S., plug, twist and smoking Salem 

About the turn of the century many of these concerns 
consolidated, merged, or sold their plants as the industry con- 
centrated into larger units. A brief description of the present- 
day manufacturers follows. 

The R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company was started in 1875 
by Richard J. Reynolds, who, with a small capital, began to 
manufacture chewing tobacco products. He was then only 
twenty-five years old, just about the age of Winston itself. 
At first the plant consisted of one small building, erected at 
a cost of less than $2,500 including the machinery. Originally 
the products were marketed in only a few of the near-by 
states, but the business prospered and additions to the factory 
were soon begun. For thirteen years he conducted the busi- 
ness individually, but in 1888 he took into partnership with 
him other men and continued to operate as a partnership until 
1890. At that time a charter of incorporation was obtained 
from the State of North Carolina and the business of R. J. 
Reynolds & Company was transferred to the North Carolina 
Corporation known as R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. 
R. J. Reynolds was the president and continued in this capac- 
ity until his death on July 29, 19 18. The business was operated 
under this charter until 1899 when the present charter was 
procured from the State of New Jersey and the factories, 
business, and properties were transferred to the New Jersey 
Corporation. 

The company began business as a manufacturer of chewing 
tobaccos but granulated smoking tobaccos were added in the 
1890's. The process for Prince Albert smoking tobacco was 
patented on July 30, 1907, and this was one of the first single 
tobacco products to be advertised on a national scale. The 
first Camel Cigarettes were manufactured on October 19, 



A Center of Industry 173 

191 3, the first of the modern- type blends. Its principal brands, 
among a great many others, are Camel Cigarettes, Prince 
Albert smoking tobacco, George Washington pipe tobacco, 
and Days Work, Browns Mule, and Apple Sun Cured chew- 
ing tobaccos. 

The original "little red factory," whose base was at first 
about the size of a tennis court, has been multiplied into more 
than 140 large factory units and leaf storage warehouses. More 
than 3000 of over 12,000 employees have a service record 
with the Company of twenty years or longer. An unusual 
feature for a company of its size is that the Board of Directors 
is composed of men who, as officers or heads of departments, 
are closely connected with the actual operation of the busi- 
ness. From a modest, one-man beginning this company now 
distributes its products in every country of the world. 

The Brown & WiUiamson Tobacco Company was started 
in 1 894 as a partnership between George T. Brown and R. L. 
Williamson. At that time they purchased the factory and 
machinery formerly owned by H. H. Reynolds and began on 
a small scale, with an operating capital of about $10,000. In 
1906 the business had grown to such a size that it was deemed 
best to incorporate, the first meeting of the incorporators 
being held in January, 1906. Capital of $400,000 was au- 
thorized with about $70,000 paid in. 

Up to that time the company had manufactured only plug 
tobacco. A short while after incorporation it was decided to 
go into the manufacture of snuff and today it is the only 
manufacturer of snuff in the state. Its principal brands are 
Tube Rose snuff, and Blood Hound and Sun Cured chewing 
tobaccos. 

In April, 1927, the company was purchased by the British- 
American Tobacco Company, Ltd., and is now operated as a 
subsidiary of this company. From the small start of thirty 
operators in 1894, the business has grown until today it has 
between 500 and 600 employees. 



174 Forsyth, a County on the March 

The tobacco firm of Taylor Brothers was organized in 
1883 by WilHam B. Taylor and his brother Jacquelin P. 
Taylor, who had successfully manufactured tobacco for 
several years before this time in V^irginia. They produced 
chewing tobaccos, both plug and twist, which have enjoyed 
widespread sales. The business was conservatively managed, 
and growth, while slow, was steady. The original factory has 
been enlarged more than five times. In 192 1 the business was 
incorporated under the name of Taylor Bros., Inc. Among 
its many brands are Rich & Ripe, Bull of the Woods, Taylor 
Made, and Ripe Peaches. 

The fine quality of leaf tobacco cultivated in this area has 
attracted buyers for manufacturers in other sections of the 
country. Not a small quantity of the tobacco sold in local 
warehouses is exported for use in foreign countries. A large 
volume of this business is carried on by the following local 
organizations. 

The Imperial Tobacco Company (of Great Britain and 
Ireland) Limited, has bought tobacco on the Winston-Salem 
market since 1904. A branch office was established here in 
1909 and the next year a factory was built and machinery 
installed to prepare their leaf for shipment. 

The Export Leaf Tobacco Company of Richmond began 
their operation of buying in Winston-Salem in 191 2. The 
land on which the plant is located was purchased in 19 14 
and the building completed the same year. 

The Piedmont Leaf Tobacco Company had its beginning 
in the Wright-Hughes Tobacco Company incorporated in 
191 5. The present name was assumed in 1930 when this com- 
pany took over the Wright-Hughes plant. The business con- 
sists of buying, redrying and stemming leaf tobacco bought 
on the local market. 

The Winston Leaf Tobacco & Storage Company was or- 
ganized in 192 1 for the purpose of buying, redrying and 
stemming tobacco. This company buys tobacco in the local 



A Center of Industry 175 

warehouses for the account of many manufacturers in this 
and foreign countries. 

The Textile Industry 

The early settlers began their experiments in processing 
flax with a loom set up in 1758. Since many of the settlers 
were raising sheep, with no accessible market for their clip- 
pings, an effort was made to utilize the wool. Zevely brought 
in the first wool carding machine as early as 18 15. Experi- 
ments were being made with the cotton grown on near-by 
farms, and in 1837 the Salem Cotton Manufacturing Com- 
pany was oragnized. Francis Fries, who had been superin- 
tendent of this mill, organized the F. & H. Fries wool business 
in 1840. As an outgrowth of this company, the Arista Mill 
was built in 1880, separate from the woolen mill, for the pur- 
pose of spinning cotton and weaving cotton cloth. These 
early plants were equipped with the latest machinery and 
were lighted with gas from the gas works established in 1858. 
However, when the Arista Mill was completed, a power plant 
was installed and for the first time in the South electric lights 
were used in a cotton mill. 

The Arista Mills Company was operated under the part- 
nership of F. & H. Fries until 1903 when it was incorporated. 
The company has had a long and successful history, manu- 
facturing cotton cloth, now principally chambray which is 
used for work clothing. 

At the turn of the century, two brothers, P. H. Hanes and 
J. W. Hanes, who had been successful tobacconists for over 
twenty years, made a decision which later placed Forsyth 
County high in the textile world. In 1900 the textile business 
in the United States was of good size. Nevertheless, these two 
brothers sold their tobacco business to the Reynolds Com- 
pany and went their separate ways to success in the textile 
business. Their decision resulted in the P. H. Hanes Knitting 



176 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Co. and the Hanes Hosiery Mills Co., both of which are the 
largest in their respective fields. 

The P. H. Hanes Knitting Company was organized in 1 90 1 
and incorporated in 1903 for the purpose of manufacturing 
cotton ribbed winter-weight underwear for men. Some years 
later boys' underwear was started and a little later girls' and 
children's lines were added. About 1920 the now famous 
Hanes Athletic Underwear was started. The line now in- 
cludes men's and boys' sports wear as wd\ as children's sleep- 
ing garments. 

The village of Hanes, situated on the outskirts of Winston- 
Salem, surrounds the spinning mills. This is a model mill 
town, with churches, schools, and an auditorium. The homes 
are electric-lighted; the sidewalks and streets are paved; there 
is running water in every home. The knitting mills and finish- 
ing plant are located in the heart of Winston-Salem. The 
plants are all modern, containing up-to-date conveniences and 
equipped with the best and most modern machinery available. 

The history of the company is one of marvelous growth. 
It has long enjoyed the distinction of being the largest manu- 
facturer of men's and boys' cotton ribbed underwear in the 
world. Hanes underwear is staple in every state in the Union 
and is exported to many foreign countries. 

The Hanes Hosiery Mills Company had its start in 1900 
when J. W. Hanes purchased the old Hodgin tobacco plant 
located on Marshall Street near Second. Under the name of 
Shamrock, his new mill was producing infants' hose and 
men's socks by 1902. The mill was renamed Hanes Hosiery 
at the time it was incorporated in 19 14. By 1920, the Hanes 
Mill, now beginning to specialize in ladies' hosiery, had out- 
grown the original plant. In 1926 a new modern plant was 
completed at its present location on West 14th Street, and 
the mill was moved. In the past ten years it has more than 
doubled in size. 

The history of this mill is another one of rapid growth in 



A Center of Industry 177 

a highly competitive market. Hanes seamless hosiery has been 
out in front in the race from cotton to rayon to silk to nylon. 
The emphasis has been placed on quality and the product of 
this mill is found in the nation's finest stores. Today it is the 
largest circular knit hosiery mill in the world. 

The Indera Mills Company, located and organized in Win- 
ston-Salem in 19 14, manufactures ladies' and children's knit 
underskirts, underslips, and knee warmers. From a small 
beginning, the company had a steady demand for its products 
and in 1925 the plant was enlarged by the purchase of the 
old Maline Mills property. The products of this mill are na- 
tionally advertised and sold in every state in the Union. 

The Hanes Dye & Finishing Company was organized in 
1924 by Ralph P. Hanes, who has continued as its active head 
and president. This company operates a service industry by 
bleaching, dyeing, and finishing cotton piece goods for con- 
verters located in the eastern United States. The plant has 
recently been enlarged and today covers approximately 
180,000 square feet. 

Starting with one slasher and four looms, John A. Kester 
organized the Carolina Narrow Fabrics Company in 1928. 
The company manufactures cotton insulating tape and web- 
bing used by the electric motor producers. In 1940 a closely 
affiliated company was organized to dye, glaze and wind 
insulating yarn for the use of wire and cable producers. The 
two companies today occupy approximately 75,000 square 
feet of floor space and employ over 200 people. 

In January, 1942, the Duplan Corporation of New York 
established a division and began operation in Winston-Salem. 
In May, 1947, a second division of this large corporation, 
known as the Forsyth Division, was established here. The 
latter division was housed in a new modern plant the outside 
of which is finished in sheet aluminum. This company re- 
ceives nylon yam and prepares it on a commission basis for 
the knitting and weaving trade. The process is known as 



178 Forsyth, a County on the March 

throwing. The yarn is twisted and coated (sized), after which 
it is used in the production of hosiery and dress fabrics. 

The Adams-MilHs Corporation has a branch in Kemers- 
ville, where a large volume of women's and children's anklets 
are manufactured. In the same location the Southern Silk 
Mills has a rayon piece goods mill, and the Vance & Ring 
Company manufactures children's vat dyed socks. There are 
several other small textile manufacturers in the county. 

The Woodworking Industry 

Early settlers were known for their craftsmanship in wood 
and some of their products are still being used in homes of 
the community. The oldest existing woodworking industry 
in the county today is the Unique Furniture Makers which 
dates back to the organization of the J. C. Spach Wagon 
Works in 1854. It originated as a maker of wagons which for 
many years were known throughout the South. During the 
early years the company is reported to have produced can- 
non trucks for the Confederacy. About ru^enty-five years 
ago they entered the furniture business and now produce 
dining room, bedroom, breakfast room, and dinette furniture 
which is sold in practically all parts of the country. The 
company has a record of continuous operation by one family 
since its beginning in 1854. 

Fogle Brothers Company is another one of the oldest con- 
cerns in the county, having been organized in 1871 as a 
partnership between Christian H. and Charles A. Fogle. 
These brothers were sons of Augustus Fogle, who was Sheriff 
of Forsyth County for many years and later Mayor of Salem. 
They engaged in general millwork, sash, doors, etc., and for 
several years manufactured tobacco boxes for the local to- 
bacco factories. In 1892 Charles A. Fogle withdrew from the 
business on account of health and his brother continued as 
sole proprietor until his death in 1898. The business has been 



A Center of Industry 179 

continued by his family and today manufactures lumber, 
principally flooring, and sells building material. 

The B. F. Huntley Furniture Company had its origin in 
the Oakland Furniture Company, which began business in 
1898. B. F. Huntley was in the employment of the Oakland 
Furniture Company for some time before he organized the 
B. F. Huntley Furniture Company in 1906. Later the Oak- 
land Furniture Company was taken over by the B. F. Huntley 
Furniture Company and today the site of the first Oakland 
factory is occupied by the plant of the B. F. Huntley Furni- 
ture Company. The plant has over six acres of floor space and 
manufactures bedroom furniture exclusively. This product 
is advertised nationally and is sold all over the United States. 

In 191 3 the Mengle Company of Louisville, Kentucky, 
established a plant in Winston-Salem for the manufacture of 
wooden boxes, used primarily as shipping containers. The 
business has grown steadily, and in 1933 another division was 
established to manufacture corrugated shipping containers. 
In addition to a large production of shipping containers, this 
concern produces store fixtures, wall cabinets, and closets. 

The Fogle Furniture Company was organized as a corpo- 
ration in January, 1923, with F. A. Fogle as president, for the 
production of handwoven fibre furniture. In 1928 the manu- 
facture of matched living room furniture was started. The 
sale of the new product was so successful that the original 
line of fibre furniture was discontinued in 1936, and the 
entire production of the plant is now devoted to living room 
furniture. 

There are about fifteen other plants in the county today 
operating in the woodworking industry. 

Miscellaneous Industries 

It would be impossible to mention all of the various indus- 
trial establishments now operating in Forsyth County. There 



i8o Forsyth, a County on the March 

are several establishments, however, which deserve special 
mention although they cannot be classified in either of the 
foregoing categories. Some of these concerns have a long his- 
tory of operation and some of them, while relatively new, 
have had an important effect on the business development of 
the county. 

In 1884, J. A. Vance began the manufacture of wood 
planers and sawmills. The business w^as operated as a pro- 
prietorship until 19 19 when a partnership was formed with 
two of his sons. Ten years later it was incorporated. In 1936 
the production of metal stampings was added, and a new plant 
was constructed for this department in 1948. The products 
of this new department are used largely in the woodworking 
industry. Machine parts are also manufactured and castings 
are made in the foundry for various industrial customers. 
The planers and sawmills of J. A. Vance Company have been 
well known for years and many of these machines have been 
exported to South and Central America, Mexico, Africa, and 
the Orient. The business is operated by the son of the 
founder. 

The Briggs-Shaffner Company was started in 1897 by 
William C. Briggs and W. F. Shaffner, who had perfected a 
cigarette machine in the plant of J. A. Vance during the 
preceding six years. The company was organized to operate 
as a general machine shop with a foundry, and to specialize 
in the production of the cigarette machine. In the interest of 
the sale of this machine, W. F. Shaffner spent the next two 
years in Mexico. In the summer of 1909 the company was 
incorporated with W. F. Shaffner, president, WiUiam C. 
Briggs, vice-president, and M. H. Willis, secretary and 
treasurer. E. N. Shaffner became associated with the com- 
pany in 1943 and later that year was elected president. Today 
this company not only makes metal castings but produces a 
line of gift ware made from anodized aluminum. 

The Bahnson Company had its beginning in 191 5 under 



A Center of Industry i8i 

the name of the Normalair Company for the production of 
a centrifugal humidifier which had been invented and patented 
by J. W. Fries. The company was started by A. H. Bahnson, 
F. F. Bahnson, and J. A. Gray. A few years later the name 
was changed to The Bahnson Humidifier Company. In 1929 
the company was incorporated and became The Bahnson 
Company with A. H. Bahnson as president. In 1940 F. F. 
Bahnson retired; and in 1946 A. H. Bahnson, Jr., became 
president. The company manufactures and installs industrial 
air conditioning equipment which is well known in the textile 
industry both in this country and in several foreign countries. 
Recently the plant was expanded to a total of 96,000 square 
feet. 

In 1927 the Salem Steel Company was organized for the 
fabrication of structural steel. The business was incorporated 
in 1933 and has grown rapidly. This plant is now one of the 
best equipped and most modern steel fabrication plants in the 
South. Their product is used in residential and industrial con- 
struction and bridges. 

Southern Steel Stampings Company was granted a charter 
in 1929. This company was organized by F. F. Bahnson for 
the production of stampings used largely in the furniture 
industry and machine parts used by the textile industry. The 
son of the founder now operates the business, the plant of 
which occupies over 40,000 square feet. 

In 1944, The Bassick Company, a subsidiary of Stewart- 
Warner Company, selected Winston-Salem as the site for 
their Bassick-Sack Division. The latter part of the following 
year operations started. This company manufactures furni- 
ture hardware, known as decorative metal trim, which is used 
by the furniture manufacturing industry. The plant covers an 
area of 58,000 square feet. 

One of the largest recent additions to our industrial scene 
came as a result of the selection of this community by the 
Western Electric Company for the location of their Radio 



i82 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Shops. In 1946 operations were started in the old Chatham 
Manufacturing plant. Additional plants were leased as the 
operations expanded. Today this company occupies over 
800,000 square feet of manufacturing space. Land has been 
purchased for the development of a new plant site with 
modern building and equipment. The company manufactures 
electrical apparatus and supplies, for use by the Bell Tele- 
phone system. 

It is interesting to know the wide scale of diversification of 
Winston-Salem industry. In addition to the products of the 
industries described on the preceding pages, the following 
partial list will dispel any idea that the City of Industry is 
limited in the variety of its products. 

These include Awnings, Tents, Canvas Covers and Bags, 
Automobile Springs, Batteries, Beverages, Bread and other 
Bakery Products, Brick, Coffins, Caskets, Clothing (work), 
Fertilizer, Foods, Harness and Saddlery, Insulating Yam, 
Lumber, Machinery, Mattresses and Box Springs, Medicines, 
Sheet Metal, Mirrors, Printing and Publishing, Rugs, Sewer 
Pipe, Signs, Stone, Tin Foil, Upholstering and Veneer. 

Financial Institutions 

As early as 181 5 the Bank of Cape Fear, Wilmington, N. C, 
appointed agents in Salem. Two years before the founding 
of Winston, the formal business of banking was launched in 
Salem with the establishment of a branqh of the same Bank. 
Israel G. Loesch, or Lash, was the first banker. The bank 
was housed in a brick building located at what is now the 
southwest corner of Bank and Main streets. This branch 
bank seems to have prospered until it went down in the gen- 
eral financial crash of the Civil War. In 1866, Lash opened a 
bank of his own, the First National Bank of Salem, using 
the same building which had sheltered the branch of the Bank 
of Cape Fear. Following the death of Israel Lash in 1879, the 



A Center of Industry 183 

bank closed its doors and the banking center of the commu- 
nity moved into the new village of Winston. 

The Wachovia Bank & Trust Company dates back to the 
establishment of the Wachovia National Bank in June, 1879. 
This institution had as its president Wyatt F. Bowman, E. 
Belo as vice-president, W. A. Lemly (formerly associated 
with Israel Lash in Salem) as cashier, and James A. Gray as 
assistant cashier. Lemly was president of this flourishing 
institution from 1882 to 1906 and James A. Gray from the 
latter date to 191 1. The bank started business with a capital 
of $100,000 and in about two months it was increased to 
$150,000. In 1888 the bank was moved from its original build- 
ing on Main Street to the corner of Main and Third streets, 
where it occupied a three-story building on the present 
site of the Main office of the Wachovia Bank and Trust 
Company. 

In 1893, the Wachovia Loan and Trust Company was 
organized by F. H. Fries and his nephew, H. F. Shaifner. Its 
first home was in a modest one-story wooden building on the 
east side of Main Street between Second and Third in Win- 
ston. The directors were James A. Gray, J. E. Gihner, C. H. 
Fogle, J. C. Buxton, J. H. Millis, T. L. Vaughn and R. J. 
Reynolds. Two of these directors, Messrs. Gray and Buxton, 
were closely identified with the Wachovia National Bank! 
Gray was elected a vice-president of the Trust Company at 
the beginning but was not active until later. 

Branch offices were opened by the bank as it continued to 
grow. The Asheville office was established in 1902, and the 
High Point and Salisbury offices in 1903. The bank ceased to 
be a purely local enterprise, its business assumed state-wide 
proportions and national reputation. 

The year 191 1 saw another decisive step in the financial 
history of Winston-Salem. On January ist, the Wachovia 
National Bank (1879) was consolidated with the Wachovia 
Loan and Trust Company (1893) under the name of Wacho- 



184 Forsyth, a County on the March 

via Bank and Trust Company. Growth continued with the 
opening of the Trade Street office in 19 19, and the Raleigh 
office in 1922. The Forsyth Savings and Trust Company was 
taken over at the request of the directors of the Negro insti- 
tution in 1930 and is now operated as the Third Street 
Branch. In 1939 an office was estabhshed in Charlotte, which 
brings the total to eight offices in six cities. 

The Wachovia has grown with the community and the 
state. With total assets of $280,000,000, it is the largest bank 
between Washington and Atlanta. It has the largest combined 
capital and surplus of the banks in the Southeast. 

The City National Bank is the outgrowth of the Morris 
Plan Bank which was established in 191 7 by George W. Coan 
and George W. Coan, Jr. The bank enlarged the scope of 
its services in 1940, when it received a national charter and 
assumed its present name. Its original capital in 19 17 
amounted to $40,000. Today the total assets exceed 
$8,500,000. 

The Hood System Industrial Bank was founded in 1925 
with a capital of $225,000 by Gurney P. Hood, and Nick 
Mitchell, who was elected the first president. The bank has 
specialized in installment personal loans and has grown con- 
sistently until today its total assets amount to $1,400,000. 

The Federal Home Loan Bank of Winston-Salem was 
opened for business on October 15, 1932, to serve as a redis- 
count bank for building and loan associations and savings 
and loan associations. The district served by this bank in- 
cludes eight southeastern states. 

The First National Bank arose from one of the most tragic 
depressions in banking history. It was organized May 16, 
1934, with capital, surplus, and undivided profits of $250,000. 
Officers were Charles M. Norfleet, president, Guy R. 
Dudley, vice-president, Gilmer Wolfe, cashier. In its four- 
teen years this bank has grown steadily and total assets exceed 
$16,000,000. 



A Center of Industry 185 

In addition to its commercial and industrial banks, Win- 
ston-Salem has two building and loan associations and two 
federal savings and loan associations. The oldest of these is 
the Winston-Salem Building and Loan Association, which 
was established in 1889 and now has total assets of over 
$6,000,000. The Piedmont Federal Savings and Loan Associa- 
tion was started in 1903 under a State Charter which was 
changed to a Federal Charter in 1935. This is the largest of 
the group, with assets of over $10,000,000. The Standard 
Building and Loan Association was organized in 1908 and 
total assets now exceed $4,000,000. The First Federal Savings 
and Loan Association was organized originally under a Fed- 
eral Charter in 1934 and today has total assets in excess of 
$5,000,000. 

The Security Life and Trust Company had its beginning 
in March, 1920. George A. Grimsley and Collins Taylor, 
both of whom had many years of Hfe insurance experience, 
organized the company in Greensboro, N. C. Civic-m.inded 
local citizens, realizing the value of such an institution to a 
community, arranged for the company to move to Winston- 
Salem in 1923. The company has had a remarkable growth 
with assets now over $20,000,000 and insurance in force 
exceeding $185,000,000. 

Retail Trade 

From the earhest days, this settlement has been a center 
of trade for a wide area. To supply the needs of the two 
towns and of farmers for fifty miles or more around, there 
were in 1885 about a dozen stores in Winston that were de- 
scribed as "large." Among these were the general merchants, 
Hodgin and SuUivan, Pfohl and Stockton, Hinshaw and 
Bynum, J. E. Gilmer, Jacob Tise, Clark and Ford, and H. D. 
Poindexter; two hardware stores, Brown-Rogers & Company 
and S. E. Allen; two drug stores, one owned by Dr. V. O. 



i86 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Thompson and the other owned by Sam Smith; one clothing 
store, and a jewelry store owned by WilHam T. Vogler. In 
addition to the above large stores, a souvenir pamphlet issued 
in 1890 carried the advertisements of these merchants, some 
of whom were located in Salem: Fries, Giersh and Sense- 
man, H. W. Shore, J. F. Shaffner, D. D. Schouler, W. O. 
Senseman & Company, W. P. Ormsby, F. C. Meinung, and 
Rosenbacher Bros. 

In the five years from 1880 to 1885 the population of Win- 
ston had more than doubled, and in comparison with other 
communities in the state, Winston was regarded as an impor- 
tant center. The two towns in 1890 had a combined popula- 
tion of 10,729, out of a total population for Forsyth County 
of 28,434. The population growth of Winston-Salem from 
13,650 in 1900 to 79,815 in 1940 resulted in its growth in 
importance as a center of trade and industry. In 1940 Win- 
ston-Salem retail sales per capita were $310.00. This was 
$40.00 above the national average and $ 1 64.00 above the state 
average. The total retail trade in Forsyth County amounted 
to $32,655,000 at this time. 

The general trading area of Winston-Salem may be de- 
scribed as a circle beginning fifteen miles east to include 
Kernersville, and to the north where it goes into Virginia at 
a distance of about fifty miles to include Stuart, Martinsville, 
and Galax. It then comes back into North Carolina at a dis- 
tance of about fifty miles west to include Elkin and North 
Wilkesboro. Completing the circle, the distance decreases 
because of the pull of other markets; however, the line 
skirts Statesville and Salisbury and takes in Lexington, 
Thomasville, and High Point. This area covers a population 
of over 500,000 people. 

This trading area developed retail sales in 1947, according 
to Sales Managements Survey, which is generally accepted as 
rehable, of $264,087,000. Forsyth County alone accounted 



A Center of Industry 187 

for $1 13,147,000, which was an increase of 246 per cent over 
the 1940 census figure and a 44 per cent increase over 1946. 
The same survey placed Winston-Salem as the second largest 
city in retail sales in North Carolina for the year 1947 with 
a total of $101,493,000. The wholesale sales reported by the 
same survey for 1947 placed Winston-Salem third in North 
Carolina with $125,061,000. 

The community continues to grow as a center of trade 
with more than a thousand stores from which to select one's 
purchases. They range from conveniently located neighbor- 
hood grocery and drug stores to the adequately and thor- 
oughly modem concerns that line the business streets. 
Visitors have given us credit for the most diversified and 
well-equipped specialty shops to be found between Washing- 
ton and Atlanta. New stores are under construction and many 
other stores are expanding. 

Agricultural Development 

Although Forsyth is primarily an industrial county, it does 
not lag far behind as an agricultural county. Our citizens rec- 
ognize that a secure foundation for prosperity must include 
the products of the land. In 1920 we had 2,849 farms in the 
county for an increase during the previous decade of 7.6 per 
cent in number. In 1945 there were 3,370 farm operations in 
the county. Farm ownership is gradually increasing, for the 
number of farms operated by tenants has increased by only 
98, while the total number of farms has increased by 521 
during the last twenty-five years. The average number of 
acres to the farm is 57.4 with an average of 26.3 acres under 
cultivation. The county contains 271,360 acres of which 
193,560 were in farms in 1945. 

In 19 10 our total farm property was valued at $8,203,133 
whereas in 1940 it had increased to $16,224,085. In 1945 our 



i88 Forsyth, a County on the March 

farm property was valued at $21,037,418 for an average of 
$6,243 per farm, which placed us second highest in the state. 
We ranked first in number of farms having electricity and 
automobiles. 

Forsyth's crop-yielding power in 1944 was as follows: 
value of crops harvested, $5,869,585; value of crops sold, 
$3,217,561; value of livestock and livestock products sold, 
$1,070,273. 

Forsyth ranked 35th in the state in 1945 in the value of the 
eleven principal crops produced with a total of $6,869,490. 
Of this total the tobacco crop brought $4,701,700, the next 
highest was hay which brought $910,420, followed by corn 
which brought $647,700. This is big business and its future 
development is of interest to the entire county. 

The following comparison will be of value since it is based 
on units of comparison which do not fluctuate. No allow- 
ance need be made for the value of the currency in i860, the 
top prices of 1920, or parity prices of 1944. 

Forsyth County 

Crops and Livestock i860 1920 1944 

Corn, bushels 317^890 388,854 483,100 

Hay, tons 5,489 1 9^595 20,600 

Wheat, bushels 187,836 i99A^^ 172,330 

Oats, bushels 60,934 3^^372 143,600 

Sweet potatoes, bushels 21,001 4^.53 '^ 71400 

Irish potatoes, bushels 11,869 25,143 31,960 

Tobacco, pounds 55^ A^^ 4,049,428 7,151,600 

Butter, pounds sold 74i68i 520,242 164,378 

Horses 2,275 2,533 ^^78 

Mules 318 2,065 2,097 

Cattle 6,180 8,013 8,861 

Sheep 6,386 418 89 

Swine 18,942 9^127 7,648 



A Center of Industry 189 

A safely balanced farm system means, first of all, food 
crops enough to feed the farmer, the farmer's family, and the 
farm animals, at least as far as staple farm supplies are con- 
cerned; second, it means farm animals to furnish horsepower 
where machines are not used, and all the meat, milk, butter, 
and eggs needed for home consumption; third, it means, in 
Forsyth, tobacco as the surest ready cash crop. It would be 
folly for a farmer in our tobacco areas not to raise tobacco 
unless he can substitute for it another cash crop of equal or 
greater value; and it would be equally foolish for him to 
raise tobacco unless his barns and bins, cribs and smoke- 
houses are filled with home-raised food and feed. Farmers 
should be self-financing as well as self-feeding, and Forsyth 
County can provide this balance. 

General Facts on County Development 

History relates the series of inventions in the latter half of 
the eighteenth century in England which revolutionized the 
industries of that country. The most important of these were 
the spinning jenny, the water frame, the power loom, and 
the steam engine. Of no little importance in hastening the 
change that took place were various improved processes for 
the production of iron and steel which were introduced dur- 
ing this period. The inventions of the locomotive and the 
steamboat were equally significant. Stephenson constructed a 
practical locomotive in 18 14, and Rve years later the first 
steamboat crossed the Atlantic and ushered in the era of fast 
ocean transportation. 

Changes were soon noticed in the rest of Europe and in 
the United States. In the early days of the American colonies 
manufactures were almost unknown, and such manufactured 
goods as were needed had to be imported. Manufacturing 
began to develop in New England before the Revolutionary 
War, and after the United States became independent there 



190 Forsyth, a County on the March 

was rapid expansion. Great cities grew up along the harbors, 
such as New York and Philadelphia. The period from 1830 
to almost the end of the century was one of railway building 
and general industrial expansion, which rapidly transformed 
the United States into a great manufacturing and commercial 
nation. Meanwhile, agriculture became much more produc- 
tive, because of improved methods. Thus was the modern 
system of industry born in America. 

The same development transformed this community from 
a frontier agricultural settlement to a great industrial county, 
just as it did other communities which had many more advan- 
tages. The rapidity with which the development took place 
in our history is even more remarkable when we realize that 
our early settlement was two hundred miles from the nearest 
harbor and roads were only trails. During the period from 
1830 up until 1873, when the first direct railroad connection 
was made, our pioneers established a cotton manufacturing 
company, a wool mill, a wagon works, a power-driven wood- 
working plant, and a tobacco factory. Electricity was used to 
light a cotton mill by 1881. Tobacco had been "rolled" down 
the trail to distant markets in the earlier days but by 1885 the 
first tobacco was being shipped from this section directly to 
Europe. 

Necessity called for invention and, coupled with an ambi- 
tion for progress, drove the pioneers to give us an early devel- 
opment which has gained momentum with succeeding 
generations. The isolation of the settlement one hundred 
years ago did not prevent these men from utilizing the avail- 
able products of the soil. The climate was advantageous to 
the cultivation of tobacco and cotton and invigorating to the 
health. The vast forests yielded lumber as well as food. Indus- 
try developed from within, and the community prospered. 
The scarce means of production were directed toward the 
satisfaction of human wants. 

The story of our industry is the story of industrious men. 



A Center of Industry 191 

Some of the results of their genius are the visible, tangible 
assets which have already been described as our largest or 
oldest establishments. Yet an appraisal of Winston-Salem 
business today must take into account the numerous indus- 
tries and business concerns v^hich may not rank with the 
oldest or the largest, but which do play their important part 
in the economic life of the community. The translation of 
the complete story is revealed by certain facts which measure 
business and industrial life. 

The increase in population since 1890 is shown by the 
United States census, as follows: 



Year 


Winston-Salem 


Forsyth County 


1890 


10,729 


28,434 


1900 


13,650 


35,261 


1910 


22,700 


47,311 


1920 


48,395 


77.269 


1930 


75.274 


111,681 


1940 


79,815 


126,475 



Forsyth is one of the smallest counties in the state, there 
being only thirty counties having less area, yet it is one of 
the most populous. The density of population is 298.3 per 
square mile, nearly four times the state average. Of the county 
total, 63 per cent reside in Winston-Salem, and of the remain- 
ing rural population 22.8 per cent are classified as non-farm. 
Many of the people classified as rural dwellers make their 
living by working in the factories. There are many factories 
and business concerns in Forsyth County which are not in- 
cluded in any incorporated town, and most of their em- 
ployees are classified as rural dwellers. Also there are a great 
number of people living outside of incorporated towns who 
are employed in the towns. 

The large number of Negro laborers found in Forsyth 
County is due to the nature of the industries. The tobacco 



192 Forsyth, a County on the March 

industry offers to the unskilled Negro the most attractive of 
jobs; consequently Forsyth County has a great number of un- 
skilled Negro laborers. It is estimated that 32.5 per cent of 
our population are Negroes, while in 1920 we had 34.2 per 
cent, and in 1930, 33.3 per cent. Of the total population of 
Winston-Salem, 36,018 were Negro in the 1940 census. 

Almost 86 per cent of our population is engaged in indus- 
try, business, and the professions. From a survey conducted 
by the Chamber of Commerce in 1947, we learn that over 
half of this group is engaged in the manufacturing industry. 
The results of this survey show the percentages according to 
type of work. 

58 per cent engaged in manufacturing 
23 per cent engaged in retailing and wholesaling 
14 per cent engaged in various trades and services 
5 per cent in government and the professions 

The manufactured products of 97 establishments in For- 
syth in 1937 had a value of $349,196,894, of which amount 
$84,844,398 was added by the manufacturing process. Our 
latest survey indicates that this value will reach one billion 
dollars for the year 1947. Winston-Salem ranks first south of 
Richmond and east of the Mississippi in value of manufac- 
tured products, and produces seven times that of any other 
city in the Carolinas. 

An excellent indication of business activity is shown by the 
annual total of bank clearings in the city. The total for 1946 
increased 35 per cent over the previous year and doubled that 
of 1940. In 1947 total bank clearings were $1,412,985,000 
for an increase of 18 per cent over 1946, while the gain for 
the Fifth Federal Reserve District was 1 1 per cent. Total 
bank assets September 30, 1948, were over $318,000,000 with 
deposits of over $294,000,000. 

Winston-Salem is the market place for eighteen tobacco- 
growing counties and their 98,771 acres of tobacco allotted 



A Center of Industry 193 

for the 1 947 -1 948 season. Buyers come to our fourteen 
tobacco warehouses to buy leaf for manufacture into finished 
products not only in the United States but in many foreign 
countries. The volume of sales in the local market in ten year 
intervals over the past forty-seven years follows: 

Season Pounds 

1900-1901 21,380,012 

1910-1911 22,912,890 

1920-192 1 60,580,994 

1930-1931 65,152,950 

1940-1941 47,369,170 

1947-1948 61,743,308 

The value and the volume of the crop has varied over this 
period and any comparison should take into consideration 
the effect of Federal legislation, first instituted in 1933. This 
has resulted in varying degrees of government price support 
and also an allotment system which limits the acreage planted 
in tobacco. However, the local market sales for the 1947- 
1948 season brought the growers $23,595,280, much of which 
was spent in the city. 

In 1 90 1 the assessed value of all taxable property in Forsyth 
amounted to $8,402,308. The entire state at that time had less 
than $300,000,000 on the tax books. Today Forsyth valuation 
exceeds by 20 per cent the valuation for the entire state in 
1 90 1. 

Forsyth exhibits a marvelous increase in taxable wealth 
during the last fifty years. While these amounts are available 
for each year of our history, it is sufficient to show the last 
few years in order to give an impression of our recent 
growth. The last revaluation of real property was made in 
1941, but the basis for taxation was increased in 1947 from 
70 per cent to 80 per cent of fair cash value. These assessed 
values are shown as follows: 



194 Forsyth, a County on the March 

^933 

Forsyth County $ 47,808,069 

Winston-Salem 99,849,774 

Total $147,657,843 

^931 

Forsyth County $ 61,200,147 

Winston-Salem 99,514,603 

Total $160,714,750 

Forsyth County $ 83,250,905 

Winston-Salem 100,571,945 

Total $183,822,850 

1^48 

Forsyth County $208,558,414 

Winston-Salem 153,097,345 

Total $361,655,759 

Our rank in the state on the basis of assessed valuation can 
be shown for the year 1945. 



I St 


Forsyth County 


$226,100,000 


2nd 


Guilford County 


203,600,000 


3rd 


Mecklenburg County 


164,300,000 


4th 


Durham County 


161,900,000 


5th 


Wake County 


105,300,000 



This amazing increase in taxable wealth signifies a pros- 
perous and thrifty community which has reached these values 
not over night but over a period of many years of toil and 
energy. Such figures show that the county has resources 
which surpassed even the fondest dreams of the early found- 



A Center of Industry 195 

ers, and they also give good reason to believe that these 
resources are far from exhausted. 

Equally impressive would be the amounts of income tax 
paid to the state and federal government by the residents of 
the county, if they v^ere readily available. We have been 
referred to as "North Carolina's largest tax paying unit." 
Sales tax payments to the state in 1944 reached $910,317 and 
state income tax payments the same year amounted to 
$1,170,504. 

Because of the heavy imports incident to the tobacco 
industry a Port of Entry was established here through Act 
of Congress on June 16, 19 16. The duty paid on goods im- 
ported into Winston-Salem for the year ending June 30, 1948 
amounted to $4,988,269.34. This placed us in the rank of 
sixteenth city in the United States as a source of customs 
revenue. 

From the foregoing description of our economic back- 
ground, it is conclusive that the foundation of Forsyth 
County rests on its industry. The growth has been from 
within, with local men and local capital furnishing the lead- 
ing role. There has been no abnormality in this development; 
it has been steady, healthy, and consistent, and this is due in 
a large measure to the type of products manufactured. To- 
bacco from the fields can be delivered to the factories which 
finish the process required to prepare it for use by the ulti- 
mate consumer. Cotton from the farms can be sold to the 
plant which completes the process of manufacturing the 
garment which the consumer wears. The rough lumber can 
be delivered to the mill which ships furniture prepared for 
use in the home. Other local industries may depend on sup- 
plementary processing, but the vast majority of their 
products are definitely consumer goods. Such industry is not 
readily affected by economic extremes. 

There is a tempo in our business life not found in every 
community. We are proud of having what is sometimes called 



196 Forsyth, a County on the March 

a working man's town. The energetic way in which our 
affairs are conducted speaks well for the future growth of 
the entire county. The unity of purpose found in our citi- 
zenry had its beginning in the men who established the com- 
munity and gives true meaning to the motto, "A City 
Founded upon Co-operation." 



f|'li|^,,ii'jj^<jj.JliNj|(ipHi'%j'i^|,^,,iliii«'^i.,^^ 




aiyii 



iflfl-liips 



VIII 

WINSTON-SALEM UP TO DATE 



Two small towns suddenly found themselves a 
young city when in 191 3 Winston and Salem were 
officially linked by the consolidation and magically 
made one by the connecting hyphen. Winston-Salem 
has grown from a small town of 22,600 in 191 3 to a city with 
a population approaching 100,000 in 1948. Its achievements 
in industry, in cultural and educational advancement, and in 
wholesome community life have made it one of the foremost 
cities of the South. The thirty-five years from the consolida- 
tion until now have seen Wlnston-Salem and the nation 
pass through two wars and a major depression and through 
periods of prosperity and rapid growth. 

The consoHdation had little effect upon the life of the city, 
for Winston and Salem had long been united in spirit and in 
purpose. Business in the First World War years felt the dis- 
turbed conditions of the time, but the community's co-opera- 
tive spirit helped it meet abnormal circumstances. In 19 17 a 
municipal wood yard was organized to help with fuel dif- 
ficulties, and in 191 8 a milk pool was started to alleviate a 
milk shortage. In the fall of 19 18, two severe influenza 
epidemics occurred; this year was also marred by a riot and 
an attempted lynching on November 17, in which Rvc men 
were killed. Race and labor conditions were unsettled until 
about 1923, when the city went into a great building era, 
later stopped by the depression of 1929 and 1930. 

In 1932 the city held a pageant in celebration of the two 
hundredth anniversary of George Washington's birth, the 
pageant stressing President Washington's visit to Salem in 
1 79 1. In the same year began a back-to-the-farm movement, 
designed as a relief measure, in which 235 families were placed 
on farms. In 1933, 2,500 families were on relief and a com- 
munity club was organized to conserve food. 

By 1939 and 1940 Winston-Salem rapidly shook off the 
depression and was building again. Business adapted itself to 
defense work and later to war production. Several military 

199 



200 Forsyth, a County on the March 

and governmental agencies and war industries were added to 
the city, and Winston-Salem again sent its men— and its 
women— to war. 

The total registration of men for the armed services from 
Winston-Salem and Forsyth County in the First W^orld W^ar 
was 15,695. Of this number, 2,117 were accepted for service, 
and 68 were killed in service. In the Second World War, 
Selective Service registered 45,614 men in Forsyth County. 
The 1948 estimated veteran population of the county is 
14,266. 

Winston-Salem in the 1920's underw^ent a period of rapid 
growth— in these years the city hospital was expanded, the 
water system made more nearly adequate, the city's school 
plant greatly enlarged, new suburbs started, city limits pushed 
back. The city officials and the community's leaders felt they 
had built for many, many years to come. 

But now again, a depression and a war later, the city is 
feehng growing pains as it expands beyond the carefully- 
planned facilities of the 20's. City hospital extension, a more 
adequate water system, school supplements and school build- 
ings, city limits expansion, city planning, and traffic are again 
topics of conversation as the city increases its plant and its 
facilities to meet the demands of its growing population. 

The development of Winston-Salem from a small town to 
a large city in thirty-five well-filled years can best be under- 
stood through a closer examination of these factors which 
have contributed to and become a part of the city's expan- 
sion—its schools, churches, city government, transportation 
facilities, social agencies and civic organizations, and its busi- 
ness and residential areas. 

Physical Expansion 

Winston-Salem's population growth from 191 3 to 1920 
was phenomenal. The slogan of civic leaders was "50-15," 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 201 

or 50,000 by 191 5. The 1920 Census listed Winston-Salem's 
population as 48,375, or a growth of 1 13 per cent since 1910, 
and Winston-Salem reigned until the 1930 Census as the larg- 
est city in the state. With this population expansion, a move- 
ment to the suburbs began. 

Following the major trend of suburban developments in 
the United States, Winston-Salem built westward, and most 
of its suburbs are on elevations overlooking the city. Sporadic 
individual home-building began early in Southside, but the 
general movement to suburbs began in 19 14. 

Ardmore, the namesake of a well-known Philadelphia 
suburb, was started in 19 14 to provide for citizens overflow- 
ing the city limits. For twenty-two years, Ardmore made a 
record of erecting a new home a week. Today the section is 
a large, well-developed part of the city. It has its own elemen- 
tary school and its own fire station, as well as its own 
churches. The Ardmore Methodist Church was built in 1924, 
followed by the Ardmore Baptist, Moravian, and Congrega- 
tional Christian churches. 

Other developments were also beginning to the west of the 
city. Reynolda Village grew up around the Reynolda estate, 
started in 19 15. The Granville section was started in 191 5, a 
Crafton Heights section and a Melrose section were started 
adjoining Ardmore. In 1919 West Highlands was begun, 
followed by Buena Vista and later Westover, Westview, 
Reynolda Park, and finally the Country Club Estates in 1927.' 
Building restrictions in these later areas confined them to 
larger houses, and today they contain many beautiful homes. 

The city built some to the north. In 1920 Montview was 
started, and was followed by Forest Hills and Whiteview. 
Bon Air, clinging to the side of a hill north of town, was 
begun in 1923. Anderleigh in 1928 and Konnoak Hills in 
1929 were developed south of town. Alta Vista, a restricted 
suburb exclusively for Negroes, was begun in 1929; it was 
the first restricted Negro suburb in the South. 



202 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Meanwhile, the city was not unmindful of these new sec- 
tions rapidly filling up with potential citizens outside of the 
corporate limits, and Winston-Salem began gulping the new 
suburbs into its limits in huge bites. About 1919, the city 
limits were extended to include a part of Ardmore and Graf- 
ton Heights; in 1923, large sections of Ardmore and Grafton 
Heights, West Highlands, Waughtown, South Salem, and 
the Kimberly Park and 14th Street School areas were an- 
nexed. In 1925 some scattered outlying sections w^ere added, 
in 1926 Buena Vista and some more of Ardmore, and in 1927 
another Ardmore section and Yountztown. 

Following the development of the suburbs in the 1920's 
came the apartment house growth. The William and Mary 
Apartments, built in 1922, were the first of the modern apart- 
ment houses; the Graycourt Apartments, built in 1929, were 
the first of the large houses. These were followed by a num- 
ber of apartment houses throughout town, including the large 
Twin Gastles Apartments in 1938. 

Major suburban developments ceased after about 1929 
until the last two years or so following the Second W^orld 
War, and the majority of these post-war developments have 
been in the form of huge housing projects to help correct a 
current housing shortage. Among these developments are the 
Gloverdale Apartments, Gollege Village, Weston Homes, 
Brookwood, and the Konnoak Hills expansion. 

The citizens of Winston-Salem, on September 21, 1948, 
again voted to expand their city limits, the first extension 
since 1927. The new extension takes in, as of January i, 1949, 
sections around the fairground and sections in Konnoak Hills, 
Ardmore, and Buena Vista. 

Winston-Salem built upward as well as outward, and by 
1929 had completed its skyline. The Winston business district 
had become, before the consolidation, the commercial and 
financial section of the city. The Salem business section re- 
mained a quiet row of a few little businesses and shops. 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 203 

In 191 3, the tallest building in Winston-Salem was the 
Wachovia Bank Building at the corner of Third and Main 
streets, seven stories high, erected in 191 1. In 191 5 the O'Han- 
lon Building was built, the first of Winston-Salem's sky- 
scrapers. It remained the tallest building until 19 18, when the 
Wachovia Bank Building added another story and caught up 
with it. 

The next tall building was the Hotel Robert E. Lee, twelve 
stories, completed in 192 1. In 1926, W. M. Nissen purchased 
the old Y. M. C. A. lot at Cherry and Fourth streets, and 
completed the Nissen Building, eighteen stories, in 1927. In 
1928, the Reynolds Office Building was begun on the comer 
of Fourth and Main streets on the lot formerly occupied by 
the first city hall of Winston; this high-towered city hall, built 
in 1893 at a cost of $65,000, housed the city offices, the market, 
the armory, and the jail. The Reynolds Office Building's 
twenty-two stories were completed in 1929, and it still remains 
the tallest building in North Carolina. Also finished in 1929 
was the Carolina Apartments building, later the Carolina 
Hotel. 

Meanwhile, up and down West Fourth Street, on Fifth, on 
Cherry, the homes of the fathers were making way for the 
sons' and grandsons' businesses as the city expanded its com- 
mercial district. The Emory Gray residence site is now the 
Carolina Hotel and Theater; the Union Bus Terminal replaced 
the Hinshaw and Masten homes on Cherry. On the Major T. J. 
Brown home site, the Hotel Robert E. Lee was built, and the 
Whitaker home on Fifth was replaced by a service station, as 
was the John W. Hanes home at Fifth and Cherry. The P. H. 
Hanes home on Cherry was recently torn down and the site 
is now a parking lot. 

The present city hall replaced the Starbuck home on Main 
Street, and the lot where the R. J. Reynolds home stood on 
Fifth Street is now a playground beside Centenary Methodist 
Church. The First Presbyterian Church on Cherry added to 



204 Forsyth, a County on the March 

its property the site of the old Winston-Salem High School, 
and the Chatham Building on the northwest corner of Cherry 
and Fourth replaced the second St. Paul's Episcopal Church 
building. Walgreen's Drug Store was built on the iMasonic 
Temple site. 

Government buildings were keeping pace with private 
developments. The present City Hall was erected in 1926 on 
Main Street just north of the original dividing line between 
Winston and Salem. The second Post Office Building was built 
in 19 14, replacing, in its site on the corner of Fifth and 
Liberty, the first Public Government Building, erected in 
1906. The 19 14 Post Office Building was enlarged and com- 
pletely remodeled as it now stands in 1937. The third Forsyth 
County Courthouse was completed in 1926 on the original 
Courthouse Square where the other two courthouses had also 
stood. The first courthouse had been built in 1850 and had 
been replaced in 1 897 by the second building. 

From the early days of the consolidation, the need for an 
orderly, functional plan for the physical expansion of the city 
of Winston-Salem was discussed in Chamber of Commerce 
meetings and by civic leaders. In the 1920's, the first city plan 
was promoted and was instrumental in the establishment of the 
first through streets and in the adoption of a zoning ordinance 
in 1930. 

However, although a good deal of money was spent in set- 
ting up this first plan, it was never carried through. Constant 
work in the 1940's resulted in the establishment in 1946 of a 
temporary Cit\^-County Planning Commission; the city and 
county governments voted to undertake a joint planning 
program. A city planner was employed and he with his staff 
began work on a master plan for the city and county's future 
growth and development. 

In March, 1948, a permanent City-County Planning Board, 
made up of the Mayor, the Chairman of the County Board of 
Commissioners, and seven citizens, was named to work with 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 205 

the city-county planning staff. The plans of the Board will be 
submitted to the Board of Aldermen for approval as work is 
completed. 

City Government 

Winston-Salem city government was set up at the time of 
the consolidation in 1 9 1 3 as the mayor-alderman form of gov- 
ernment, with a mayor and eight aldermen. The general make- 
up of the city government was changed little until November 
4, 1947, when the citizens of the city voted to adopt the 
council-manager or city manager form of government. Win- 
ston-Salem's first mayor was O. B. Eaton; its first city manager 
is C. E. Perkins. 

A comparison of the first journal entry in the books of the 
new city of Winston-Salem with the city's present capital 
assets gives a clear idea of the physical expansion since 191 3— 
in 191 3, the total capital assets were $1,314,392; in 1948, the 
assets were $28,527,008. 

The separate water systems of the two towns remained 
adequate for several years after the consolidation. In 19 17, 
however, the aldermen felt the city needed a larger water 
supply and purchased a i,ooo-acre tract of land near the old 
Salem water station for an impounding reservoir. A new dam 
and lake were built and electric pumps and filters installed; 
the present filter plant was built in 1925 and the pumping sta- 
tion enlarged then. In 193 1, the dam was raised Rve and one- 
half feet and strengthened, and it was estimated that the city's 
water system was adequate until about 1955. However, a 
greatly increased population and a greatly decreased amount 
of rain in the summer of 1947 practically caused a water short- 
age in Winston-Salem, and the citizens in November, 1947, 
voted a four-million-dollar bond issue to expand and improve 
the water system. Plans are being laid for this new expansion. 

A sewage disposal plant was started in 191 5; the present 
plant was built in 1926. Winston-Salem today has 280 miles 



2o6 Forsyth, a County on the March 

of sewerage lines covering 95 per cent of the city. The city 
market was built in 1925, the incinerator plant in 1930, and 
the city abattoir in 1935. The city today operates a large fire 
department with six stations located strategically throughout 
the city. The municipal police department has four divisions, 
Patrol, Traffic, Detective, and Records and Identification. 

In the fall of 1945, the Committee of 100, a body of some 
100 representative citizens, was organized at a joint meeting 
of the town's civic clubs. The Committee studies problems of 
local municipal government and makes recommendations to 
the public and to the Board of Aldermen. It attempts to bridge 
the gap between the pubhc and the City Hall. 

Schools 

At the time of the consolidation, Winston-Salem had seven 
schools valued with their lots and furnishings at $316,000. 
After the two school systems were merged, the pubhc school 
system developed in a network throughout the city. In 1948 
Winston-Salem operated twenty public schools valued at 
$5,313,640. In 191 3 the annual school budget was $65,000, 
with 150 officers and teachers and 5,000 pupils; in 1948, the 
annual school budget was $725,000 with 465 teachers and a 
total enrollment of 15,457 pupils. 

Most of Winston-Salem's school building was done in the 
1920's, when 6^ per cent of the school system's buildings were 
built. The oldest part of a school building in use today was 
built in 19 10; the newest addition was built in 1939. When 
the Winston-Salem High School on Cherry Street, built in 
1909, burned in 1923, it was replaced by the Richard J. Rey- 
nolds High School, built in the west section of town overlook- 
ing Hanes Park. Mrs. R. J. Reynolds, in memory of her 
husband, built a handsome auditorium adjoining the high 
school and presented it to the city as the Reynolds Memorial 
Auditorium; it was finished in 1924. In 1930 the North and 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 207 

South Junior High Schools were built; these later became the 
John W. Hanes High School and the James A. Gray High 
School when the junior high school system was dropped. 
Atkins High School for Negroes was built in 193 1. 

Since the opening of the first public school in 1884, Win- 
ston-Salem citizens have been generous supporters of their 
public schools. Several bond issues were voted for public 
schools before 1933-34, when the State of North Carolina 
took over the entire support of the public schools. After two 
years under state support, the people of Winston-Salem saw 
that they could not maintain their schools at a high level on 
the basis of the state minimum program. Citizens again voted 
to tax themselves with school supplement taxes to provide for 
good schools. The most recent school supplement was voted 
in May, 1948. 

In the private school field, Salem Academy had been con- 
tinued, offering grades nine through twelve for girls. The 
Academy was given a new plant in 1929 when the Patterson- 
Bahnson-Shaifner famihes gave three new buildings for the 
school. Summit School, a private school offering two years 
kindergarten and grades one through eight, was started in 1933 
on Summit Street; in September, 1946, it moved into a new 
and completely modern building and playground on Reynolda 
Road. 

Meanwhile, higher education was keeping pace. A $640,000 
endowment was completed for Salem College in 1920. The 
college had then twelve buildings; today it has twenty, and 
plans are under way for further expansion. The college at 
present has some 600 students. 

Slater State Normal School for Negroes had its name 
changed in 1925 to the Winston-Salem Teachers College and 
two more years of college work added, making it a four-year 
accredited institution. The school at present has a 62 -acre 
campus, 472 students, and eleven buildings. 

In 1 94 1, the medical school of Wake Forest College was 



2o8 Forsyth, a County on the March 

separated from the other college departments and moved to 
Winston-Salem; the move was made as a result of gifts from 
the Bowman Gray family and in order to co-ordinate the 
school's work more closely with the North Carolina Baptist 
Hospital in Winston-Salem. A new plant was built for the 
school adjoining the Baptist Hospital, and the Bowman Gray 
School of Medicine of Wake Forest College opened in Sep- 
tember of 1 94 1. It is rated as one of the finest medical schools 
in the South; students in the fall of 1948 numbered 184. 

In the spring of 1946, the trustees of the Z. Smith Reynolds 
Foundation offered a $10,750,000 endowment to Wake Forest 
College, a Baptist co-educational institution founded in 1834. 
The offer was made on condition that the institution be moved 
within about five years from its site seventeen miles northeast 
of Raleigh to a new college campus in Winston-Salem. 

On July 30, 1946, the North Carolina Baptist State Conven- 
tion met in Greenboro in special session for the first time 
since its founding and voted to accept the Foundation offer 
and move the college to Winston-Salem. The offer was ac- 
cepted with the provision that the college name would not be 
changed and that control of the college would remain with a 
Board of Trustees appointed by the Baptist State Convention. 

A 300-acre tract of land, part of the Reynolds family estate 
just west of Wlnston-Salem, was given to the college for a site, 
and the Baptists of the state went to work to raise the money 
necessary to build a new college adequate for a student body 
of not less than 2,000. Forsyth County and Winston-Salem, in 
a campaign in May of 1948, gave approximately $1,600,000 
toward the building fund goal of $6,000,000. The remainder 
of the money for building the college will come from the 
Baptist churches throughout North Carolina, from the alumni 
and friends of the college, and from the accumulated income 
of the Reynolds Foundation over the five-year period. 

The decision to move Wake Forest College to \\lnston- 
Salem was heralded as a great step in the city's development 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 209 

as well as a tremendous advancement for education in North- 
western North Carolina, for the western section of the state 
at present has no large college or university. Besides the com- 
mercial advantages of having a large college in the city, Wake 
Forest will give to industrialized Winston-Salem a more well- 
rounded community life and cultural program. The large 
faculty and student body that Wake Forest College will bring 
to the city will help round out the city's middle-income and 
professional group. 

In June of 1946 "Graylyn," the large estate of the Bowman 
Gray family, was given to the Bowman Gray School of Medi- 
cine and is operated now as a rehabilitation and convalescent 
center. As "Graylyn" lies just across the road from the Rey- 
nolda site of the future Wake Forest College, plans are under 
consideration to establish the medical school and a new medical 
center on the Graylyn site. 

Growth of the Churches 

Winston-Salem, founded as it was by a religious group, has 
always been dominated by a deep religious atmosphere and a 
sincere interest in the church. Today there are in the city some 
150 churches representing about twenty denominations. 
Baptist churches lead the list in number, with Methodist, 
Moravian, and Presbyterian following in the order listed. 

Neighborhood churches are scattered so thickly throughout 
the city that Winston-Salem has sometimes been called the 
"City of Churches." The two largest of the uptown churches 
have memberships of around 3,000. Of the large uptow^n 
churches. First Baptist was built in 1925, and Calvary Mora- 
vian in 1926; Augsburg Lutheran was built in 1928, St. Paul's 
Episcopal in 1929, and Centenary Methodist in 193 1. First 
Presbyterian expanded its plant considerably in 1932. 

Today the religious life of the community still looks to the 
leadership and influence of the historic Home Moravian 



2IO Forsyth, a County on the March 

Church, built in 1800 in Old Salem, and Winston-Salem's 
most cherished traditions center around the beautiful relio^ious 
services and customs of the Moravian Church. Predominant 
among these services are the Love Feasts and Christmas Candle 
Service, the New Year's Eve Memorabilia and Watch Night, 
and the famous early Easter morning service. 

The Easter service, held in Old Salem since 1773, first began 
to attract large crowds of worshippers from all over the state 
and country in the 1920's after the service had received na- 
tional publicity. Now some 50,000 people annually witness 
the simple, impressive service and join in the happiness of a 
Salem Easter. The Easter service has been broadcast locally 
since 1930. Since 1941 it has been broadcast nationally over 
the Columbia Network and sent by shortwave radio around 
the world. During the war, through the Office of War In- 
formation, it was sent by shortwave to boys overseas. It is the 
largest religious broadcast in the history of radio. 

Transportation and Communication 

Good means of transportation and communication facilities 
have often been the cause of the development and growth of 
cities— for example, a town grows up where two main roads 
cross, a village is begun at a railroad terminal, or a city grad- 
ually comes into being around a good river harbor. But 
Winston-Salem, founded for religious and government pur- 
poses, had to build carefully with the hands and brains of its 
citizens a dependable network of railroads, highways, and 
airways. 

Seeing that transportation arteries could be Winston-Salem's 
starvation or salvation, businessmen put much stress on their 
development. Winston-Salem's three railroads had already 
been established by 191 3. The Southern came into the city in 
1873, the Norfolk and Western in 1889, and Winston-Salem 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 211 

Southbound in 19 lo. Many of the roads were bulk by local 
enterprise and capital. The railroads began extensive expan- 
sion of their lines and stations after 191 3. Southbound Railway 
opened an office for freight traffic; in 19 16 the Norfolk and 
Western built a new freight station. Union Station was com- 
pleted in 1926 and Southern completed a new freight depot. In 
1927-28, Southern Railway and Norfolk and Western built 
new yards at an expenditure of $3,000,000. 

Because of the vast amount of freight generated in Winston- 
Salem, "oif-hne" railways began opening offices in the city 
in 1929. Today there are thirty-three "off-line" offices in the 
city representing 6^ per cent of the nation's first-class railway 
mileage. 

Highways, too, were built the hard way, with local enter- 
prise and local energy. Wise planning of the Forsyth County 
commissioners laid into Winston-Salem a network of high- 
ways, often subsidized locally, which is second to none in 
North Carolina. In 1920 the road to Walkertown was the 
city's longest highway; today Winston-Salem has leading into 
it more hard-surfaced roads than any other city or center in 
North Carolina. 

With the highway development came the buses. In 19 12 
3 5 -horsepower. Model T Ford engine buses, carrying a maxi- 
mum of seven to sixteen passengers, took travelers from Win- 
ston-Salem to High Point. About 191 5 bus travel through the 
city equalled around fifty passengers a day. Now enormous 
240-horsepower buses carry a maximum of thirty-seven pas- 
sengers each to any point or connection in the country. Some 
three thousand bus travelers pass through the city daily. 

Before 1926 a number of small bus companies operated in 
Winston-Salem. John L. Gilmer formed the Camel City Coach 
Company in 1926, bought up a number of smaller lines, and 
began operation with six 21 -passenger buses. In 1930, the 
Camel City Coach Company merged with the Blue and Gray 



212 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Lines of Charleston, West Virginia, to become the Atlantic 
Greyhound Lines. Winston-Salem is now the center for the 
southern division of the Greyhound Lines. 

The first bus station adjoining the Zinzendorf Hotel had a 
waiting room to accommodate twenty people and an office. 
The Union Bus Station of today is one of the most modern 
and largest in the nation; it was built in 1942 at a cost of 
around $200,000 and can handle twenty-four buses at once 
and 240 people in its waiting rooms. 

Motor express transportation grew also with the highway 
development. Today about forty motor lines operate out of 
the city. 

Winston-Salem dedicated its first airport on December 5, 
1 9 19, the old iMaynard Field, the first airport in the South 
apart from national defense needs. Some years later, in the 
1920's, Winston-Salem used with Greensboro and High Point 
the old Friendship Airport. 

W^hen it became obvious that the Friendship Airport would 
not serve the city's needs and that the iMaynard Field was out- 
moded, citizens began making plans for a new field. A timely 
visit from Colonel Charles A. Lindbergh gave impetus to these 
plans, and on October 14, 1927, the Miller Airport, built on 
the old county farm lands just outside the city, was officially 
opened. That same day the field was given to the city by a 
public-spirited citizen, R. E. Lasater, and placed under the 
Winston-Salem Foundation. 

In the early 1930's, the field received some appropriations 
under the Federal Work Relief Program for grading and 
improvement. In 1935 citizens in Winston-Salem learned that 
the old Friendship Airport was being condemned for landings 
by Eastern Air Lines. The Miller Airport was put into shape 
to meet government and air line requirements and on April 2, 
1935, Eastern Air Lines began the first commercial air service 
Winston-Salem had ever had. Eight months later, the service 
was discontinued because of insufficient facilities at the airport. 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 213 

On June 14, 194 1, Eastern Air Lines again established reg- 
ular commercial air service-direct air mail, passenger, and 
express service-for Winston-Salem. In June, 1942, the new 
terminal, made possible by a family gift, was finished, and the 
Smith Reynolds Airport officially opened. This is today one 
of the finest and newest airport terminals in the South; the 
field has class-five facilities (class six being the highest). Capital 
Airlines began service through the city in June, 1947. Pied- 
mont Aviation, Inc., opened its home offices in Winston-Salem 
and began operation in February of 1948. 

A "Romance of Transportation" pageant on December 29, 
1936, sponsored by the Chamber of Commerce, marked fare- 
well to the electric streetcar system and the city changed to 
buses for its intra-city transportation. Six taxi-cab companies 
also furnish city transportation. 

One summer night in 191 3, the members of the Winston- 
Salem Chamber of Commerce very heatedly discussed a pro- 
posed "white way" for the city. The proposition was to light 
and pave West Fourth Street from Liberty to and including 
Grace Court; object of said proposal was to make "an evening 
thoroughfare for public enjoyment and an attractive advertise^ 
ment to outsiders coming to the city." Among objections to 
the project were the expense and the thought that the "daz- 
zling illumination" would be a discomfort to the residents of 
Fourth Street. 

The Retail Merchants Association installed a "white way" 
in 191 3 after futile attempts to get the city to do so; a perma- 
nent lighting system was later installed by the city because 
this first attempt met with such favor. 

Cobblestone paving had been used in Salem for many years, 
but the first modern street paving project began in 1890 with 
the laying of Belgian blocks along Main Street. Belgian blocks 
were used on the streets as late as 19 19 and constituted a prin- 
cipal paving material. Brick for streets was little used in the 
city; a short section of West First Street was laid in brick as an 



214 Forsyth, a County on the March 

experiment. In 191 5 the city had 12.22 miles of paved streets 
within the city Hmits. In 1923 an extensive street building 
program was begun and today there are 145 miles of paved 
streets within the city. In 1928 a city planner had West Fourth 
Street widened and wanted to make it even wider but people 
called him crazy; today five-o'clock traffic fighters wish the 
street had a few hundred feet added to it. 

In 191 3 Winston-Salem had 1,842 telephones; in Novem- 
ber, 1948, the city had 28,814. The Southern Bell Telephone 
and Telegraph Company, Inc., which has been established in 
the city since 1891, moved into its building on West Fifth 
Street in 193 1. Today extensive additions are being made in 
the building and to the city's telephone system. 

Means of Public Information 

Winston-Salem's present two daily newspapers had varied 
fortunes and titles before they acquired their present names 
and forms. In 191 8, a newly-incorporated firm, the Sentinel 
Printing and Publishing Company, bought both the Ticin 
City Daily Sentinel (an afternoon paper established in 1885), 
as well as the Sentinel Building w^hich had been erected in 
1909 at 241 North Liberty Street. The company continued 
operation until August, 1926, when the entire property was 
sold to the newly-organized Winston-Salem Sentinel, Inc., 
a corporation owned chiefly by Frank A. Gannett of Roches- 
ter, New York. The semi-weekly Western Sentinel was 
merged at this time with the Tucin City Sentinel. Mr. Gannett 
maintained his interest in the Sentinel for less than a year. 

In the meantime, a morning paper, the Daily Journal 
(established in 1897), had been bought by Owen Moon, who 
became publisher and owner of the Winston-Salem Journal 
Company. In February, 1927, Mr. Moon bought out the 
stock of the Winston-Salem Sentinel, Inc., and combined the 
two papers under one roof. Before the two papers were con- 



Winston-Salcm Up to Date 215 

solidated, there had been stiff competition between the 
Journal and the Sentinel; the SentinePs main object on Satur- 
day night was always to get out as big a paper as possible with 
all the news in it because the Journal got out the Sunday 
paper. Mr. Moon in 1928 moved his two newspapers and his 
company into a new building built for them on Marshall 
Street, the Journal-Sentinel Building. 

In 1937, the Piedmont Publishing Company was formed 
with Gordan Gray as president. The company acquired from 
Owen Moon the two newspapers, the building, and the 
equipment, and today publishes the Tiviji City Sentinel 
(afternoon), the Winston-Salem Journal (morning), and the 
Journal and Sentinel (Sunday). 

The two newspapers today have a combined circulation of 
84,700 and a staff of 240. This is a far cry from the first Salem 
newspaper. The Weekly Gleaner^ published in 1829 on a 
hand press with a staff of two. However, the Journal and 
Sentinel represent 119 years of development through a con- 
tinuous succession of newspapers, each a vital force in the 
community. 

The Southern Tobacco Journal, founded in 1886, has been 
published continuously from Winston-Salem since 1932. It 
became a monthly magazine in 1934 and is published by the 
Carmichael Printing Company. Blum^s Almanac, now in its 
i2oth year of continuous publication, is still a best seller in 
the city. The almanac is now published by the Goslen Pub- 
lishing Company. 

Winston-Salem's first radio station, WSJS, was formally 
opened on April 17, 1930. A religious program was the first 
to be broadcast out of Winston-Salem. The late Right Rev- 
erend Edward Rondthaler, bishop of the Moravian Church, 
offered the dedicatory prayer and the St. Paul's Episcopal 
Church choir took part on the program. On June 4, 1930, the 
station had its first network program and is now a full-time 
member of the National Broadcasting System. WSJS opened 



2i6 Forsyth, a County on the March 

and still operates as a department of the Piedmont Publishing 
Company; in 1941 the station moved into its own building 
on North Spruce Street. 

Radio Station \\'AIR began operation in 1937 as an Amer- 
ican Broadcasting Company affiliate. Station A\^TOB opened 
in 1947 as an affiliate of the Mutual Broadcasting Company. 
Both Stations AVSJS and WAIR operate frequency modula- 
tion stations. 

Health and Hospital Facilities 

The Winston-Salem Health Department was organized in 
19 1 6 with offices in the City Hall. In December, 1938, the 
department moved into the Health Center on North A\^ood- 
lawn Avenue. In July, 1945, the department w^as consolidated 
with the County Health Department, making the City- 
County Health Department whose duty it is to guard the 
health of the city and county today. 

In 1 9 14 the City Hospital was built, and in 19 15 a nurses' 
home was built by the ladies of the T\\'in-City Hospital As- 
sociation from proceeds of the sale of the old hospital plant 
on Brookstown Avenue. Later, $240,000 w^as bequeathed to 
the city by R. J. Reynolds for building two additions to the 
hospital; in 1922 the North Reynolds wing for colored patients 
was completed, and in 1924, the South Reynolds wing was 
completed. The Sterling Smith annex was added later, and the 
name changed to City Memorial Hospital. A new home for 
student nurses was built in 1930. In 1941 a strip of property 
in front of the hospital was given to the hospital for nurses' 
homes and parking space. 

The Baptist State Convention decided to establish a hospital 
in Winston-Salem and in 192 1 citizens of A\'inston-Salem in a 
city campaign gave $140,000 toward building the hospital. 
In 1923, the North Carolina Baptist Hospital was completed 
on South Hawthorne Road. 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 217 

There developed a great need for hospital facilities for 
Negroes more adequate than the North wing of the City 
Memorial Hospital. In 1938 a modern hospital for Negroes, 
the Kate Bitting Reynolds Memorial, was built, made possible 
by a gift of $200,000 from Mr. and Mrs. W. N. Reynolds and 
$125,000 from the Duke Endowment Fund. 

In 191 7 the first tuberculosis sanatorium was opened just 
outside of Winston-Salem; it was the first county sanatorium 
m North Carolina. In 1930 a modern tuberculosis sanatorium, 
the Forsyth County Sanatorium for Tuberculosis, opened on 
Rural Hall Road. In 1937 a new building was built for Negro 
patients. The sanatorium at present can care for eighty-eight 
Negro and sixty white patients. 

The city functions in the field of public welfare by con- 
tributing funds to the county welfare department; there is 
no city welfare department. 

Private Health, Welfare, and Social Agencies 

The Associated Charities, Winston-Salem's first venture in 
organized, private charity, was started in 1905 in keeping 
with similar movements throughout the world. Miss Annie 
Grogan was appointed the secretary and served until her 
retirement in 1936. ''Miss Annie" with her horse and buggy, 
and later her roadster, was a familiar sight on the street^of 
Winston-Salem as she made her calls in the interest of char- 
ity; she became known as Winston-Salem's "mother of 
charity." 

The Associated Charities became the pivot around which 
other agencies developed. The Y.M.C.A., which had been 
formed in 1888, built its first home in 1908 on the site where 
the Nissen Building now stands. In 1927, a new building was 
erected on Marshall Street at a cost of about a half million 
dollars; the new building was made possible through pubHc 
contributions and through the sale of the old building site. 



2i8 Forsyth, a County on the March 

A Negro branch of the Y.Al.C.A. had been opened in 191 1. 

The Y.W.C.A., organized in 1908, erected its first home 
in 1 9 1 6 on the corner of First and Church streets, where ran 
the original dividing Hne between Winston and Salem. The 
activities of the Y.W.C.A. gradually outgrew the building, 
and in 1942 a most attractive brick building was built on 
Glade Street. The Chestnut Street Branch of the Y.W.C.A. 
was organized for Negro girls in 19 18 as an outgrowth of a 
Negro girls' club. 

The Boy Scout movement had begun in Winston-Salem in 
191 1 with the organization of the first troop. Today there are 
sixty-eight troops in the city and county. The first Girl 
Scout troop was organized in December, 1923, at Reynolds 
High School. Today there are fifty-eight troops in the city. 

The Winston-Salem Chapter of the American Red Cross 
was organized during the war in 19 17. Other organizations, 
such as the Forsyth County Tuberculosis and Health Associa- 
tion, came later. 

Contemporary with the movement in the United States to 
consolidate fund-raising solicitations, the Community Chest 
of Forsyth County was organized in 1923. Today the Chest 
federates the finances and has charge of the distribution of 
the finances of twenty local health and welfare organizations, 
raising the money in one campaign and distributing it accord- 
ing to need among its member organizations. The first Chest 
goal was $28,000, but $36,000 was actually subscribed. The 
1948 goal was $262,000, and approximately $275,000 was 
subscribed. Each year since organization of the Community 
Chest, its goal has been oversubscribed. 

In 1938, the Winston-Salem Council of Social Agencies 
was formed to co-ordinate the community social welfare 
program. This organization functions today as the Commu- 
nity Council, made up of representatives from over forty 
public and private health, welfare, and recreation agencies 
and civic groups. 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 219 

In 1940, the Associated Charities, which had functioned so 
well in the field of private welfare, had part of its functions 
absorbed by the County Department of Public Welfare; the 
Family and Child Service Agency carry on the remaining 
work. 

Winston-Salem has two institutions for the care of chil- 
dren. The Methodist Children's Home on Reynolda Road, 
which opened September 7, 1909, serves Western North 
Carolina; the Memorial Industrial School for Negroes on 
North Main Street, opened in 1923, provides a home for 
underprivileged Negro children. 

The Winston-Salem Foundation, a non-profit organization 
established in 1919, manages numbers of civic enterprises and 
works in all fields for community betterment. The Founda- 
tion's funds are derived from the contributions of Winston- 
Salem citizens. The Foundation aids the community in many 
ways, such as in providing camping for needy boys and girls 
and in helping young men and women obtain college 
educations. 

In an attempt to find some solution to the problem of the 
increasing number of fund-raising campaigns, the Chamber 
of Commerce and the Retail Merchants Association organized 
in the summer of 1946 the Forsyth County Committee on 
Public Solicitation. The committee acts as a central agency 
through which clear all proposals for community- wide fund- 
raising campaigns; the committee reviews fund-raising 
solicitations to determine their worthiness, necessity, and 
efficiency, and reports the findings of its review to the general 
public. The committee was reorganized and enlarged in the 
fall of 1948. 

Recreational Facilities 

Community-wide recreation services for Winston-Salem 
began in 19 18 when the Board of Aldermen appropriated 



220 Forsyth, a County on the March 

$6,000 for park and playground services and authorized the 
opening and equipping of five playgrounds. In 1934 the 
Public Recreation Commission was organized. Today the city 
has twenty-six parks and playgrounds, with a total of 
536 acres; these parks have athletic fields, picnic areas, and 
special amusement features. The largest park is Reynolds, one 
of the South's finest municipal recreational centers, opened 
in 1940. The city has an average of more than ten acres of 
playground for each public school. 

Dollar train excursions. Fourth of July celebrations, sum- 
mer band concerts on the Courthouse Square, and picnics in 
Nissen Park were Winston-Salem's idea of having fun in the 
early days of the consolidation. Commercialized recreation 
began to develop with the expansion of the motion picture 
theaters. 

Today the city has six motion picture theaters, two com- 
mercial and nine membership or free swimming pools, bowl- 
ing alleys, and stables and riding academies. Two commercial 
and two membership golf courses succeed the original Twin 
City Golf Club, North Carolina's first golf club, formed in 
Winston-Salem in 1897. 

The Forsyth Country Club was organized in 19 10 and 
today has a clubhouse, swimming pool, and golf course in 
the west section of town. The Old Town Club, formed in 
1938, also has its own clubhouse, golf course, and swimming 
pool. The Twin City Club for men, organized in 1884, is 
still quite active. 

The Bowman Gray Memorial Stadium, dedicated on 
October 22, 1939, with the annual football game between 
Duke University and Wake Forest College, was built as a 
WPA project. Private funds, matching those of the \\TA, 
were furnished by the Bowman Gray family; the stadium 
cost around $200,000. The stadium, with a seating capacity 
of 12,000, is owned by the city and is used for large athletic 
events. 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 221 

In May of 1946, a million-dollar fund was raised to build 
a Memorial Coliseum, designed to seat 9,000. The fund is now 
being held in trust and the Coliseum will be built when the 
current building materials shortage is over. 

Growth of Business and Service Organizations 

The Chamber of Commerce of Winston and Salem, or- 
ganized in 1885, became at the time of the consolidation the 
Winston-Salem Chamber of Commerce, and through all of 
the rapid development of the city it has continued its leader- 
ship in building the economic, cultural, and educational 
growth of the community. The Winston-Salem Junior 
Chamber of Commerce was formed in 1929 to organize the 
leadership of the young men. The Winston-Salem Retail 
Merchants Association, formed in 1889 as the Winston- 
Salem Merchants and Traders' Union, continues its services 
to the merchants of the city; it is the oldest organization of 
its kind in North Carolina. 

The Winston-Salem Real Estate Exchange was organized 
in 191 5; in 191 7, the group joined the national organization 
and became the Winston-Salem Chapter, National Real 
Estate Board. The Winston-Salem Automobile Club, or- 
ganized in 1 9 II , is today the oldest in the Carolinas and one 
of the oldest in the South. The Winston Tobacco Board of 
Trade, organized in 1869, continues today its promotion and 
organization of the Winston-Salem market. 

When Winston and Salem were young and small, business- 
men could gather on the street corners and in the shops to 
discuss the news of the day and to exchange ideas. As the city 
grew, however, businessmen felt the need for a better means 
of getting acquainted with fellow citizens, of exchanging 
ideas, and of perhaps promoting community projects. So, 
soon after the consolidation, the civic luncheon club move- 
ment began, following a similar pattern of development in 



222 Forsyth, a County on the March 

other cities. In 19 15, the Rotary Club was formed as the first, 
followed by Kiwanis in 19 19; Business and Professional 
Women's Club, 19 19; Civitan, 192 1; Lions, 1922; Altrusa 
(for women), 1924; Pilot Club (for women), 1934; Ex- 
change Club, 1935; American Business Club, 1940; Credit 
Women's Breakfast Club, 1941; Cooperative Club, 1947; and 
the Optimist Club, 1948. 

Within the last few years, there has been in the city and 
county a movement to organize neighborhood civic clubs for 
the promotion of fellow^ship and neighborhood projects and 
improvements. Among these are the Sun-Waugh Civic Club, 
the North Winston Men's Community Club, the North 
Winston Men's Brotherhood, the Clemmons Civic Club, 
Lewisville Civic Club, the Old Town Civic Club, the Ard- 
more Civic Club, Walkertown Men's Club, Mineral Springs 
Civic Club, Rural Hall Civic Club, City View Men's Club, 
Konnoak Hills Club, South Fork Civic Club, and the \A'est 
Salem Civic Club. 

Women's service and social organizations formed as rap- 
idly as did the men's. A Woman's Club was organized in 
1919, followed by a Junior Woman's Club. A Junior League 
was formed in 1923, the first in North Carolina. The Twin 
City Garden Club was organized in 1925 as the pioneer of 
the Winston-Salem garden clubs; it sponsored the organiza- 
tion of the North Carolina Federation of Garden Clubs. In 
193 1, the Winston-Salem Council of Garden Clubs was 
formed and today has nine member clubs. Book clubs, led by 
the Sorosis Club, which was organized in 1895, now total 
seven. 

The Development of an Arts Program 

Winston-Salem, since its founding by the Moravians, has 
always been recognized as a city sympathetic toward and 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 223 

active in the arts, chiefly within church, family, and school 
circles. Early settlers were skilled craftsmen; church bands 
developed in each Moravian church. 

Several music clubs were organized in the city before 1938, 
but no organized arts program with a continuing pattern of 
development came into being until ten years ago when the 
Festival Opera Group was launched at Salem College. In 
1942, two evenings of opera were brought to Winston- 
Salem by a Summer School of Opera, held at the Woman's 
College of the University of North Carolina. This opera 
festival program was expanded in Winston-Salem to include 
an evening of orchestral music and a community sing. The 
whole event, enlisting the support of the community's civic 
and art agencies, was called the Greater Winston-Salem 
Music Festival. 

Out of this beginning was born the Piedmont Festival of 
Music and Arts, held for the first time in 1943. The Festival 
was launched as a "people's art" production, designed to co- 
ordinate in a common project the various community arts 
groups, such as the dance studios, the Little Theater, and 
the various choral groups. The first Festival was made up of 
an opera and oratorio performance, an orchestra concert, and 
interesting exhibits of art, photography, and handicrafts. Five 
hundred people took part in the first festival. 

Later festivals were expanded to include a children's con- 
cert, a community sing, and a drama, and in 1948 the Pied- 
mont Festival was held for the sixth time. The "people's art" 
idea spread from Winston-Salem throughout North Carolina 
and the country and has contributed to the development of 
several similar festivals and opera groups. 

The Piedmont Festival stimulated the development of sev- 
eral arts and music groups in the community. In 1945 the 
Junior League sponsored the establishment of an arts and 
crafts center and employed a full-time director. This pro- 



224 Forsyth, a County on the March 

gram has led to the formation of the Arts and Crafts Associa- 
tion which sponsors the Winston-Salem \\'orkshop, open to 
all interested in learning any art or craft. 

From 1942 to 1945, several civic choral groups were 
organized, including the Forsyth Singers, an all-male chorus; 
the Maids of Melody; a boys' choir; and the Sunnyside Choral 
Club. In 1946 the Winston-Salem Civic Orchestra and the 
Winston-Salem Operetta Association were begun. 

Old Salem Today 

The Old Salem section of Winston-Salem, which still re- 
tains much of the original appearance of its early days, is a 
constant source of attraction not only to visitors to the city 
but to Winston-Salem's people as well, who whether native- 
born or citizens by adoption come to love the weathered 
brick buildings that represent the beginnings and the heritage 
of their city. 

In Old Salem there are standing today fifteen buildings 
built betAveen 1767 and 1800. Important among these are the 
Fourth House, erected in 1767 and restored along the original 
lines; the Moravian Brothers House, now the Moravian 
Church Home, erected in 1769; the Salem Tavern, erected in 
1784, a famous old inn where George W^ashington w^as enter- 
tained in 1 791; the Wachovia Historical Museum, formerly 
Salem Boys School, erected in 1796; the Moravian Archive 
House, erected in 1797; and the Home Moravian Church, 
begun in 1798 and finished in 1800. Beautiful "God's Acre," 
the Moravian graveyard, is one of Salem's most cherished 
spots. 

The Old Salem section is one of the few sections so pre- 
served in the United States. A movement is underway in the 
city now to preserve this section more carefully and to pro- 
tect it from further business development. 



Winston-Salem Up to Date 225 

Winston-Salem Today 

Thus through tracing the various threads that make up 
community hfe, we see how two Httle towns, consoHdated 
thirty-five years ago, have become one big city. 

Winston-Salem today has its problems— slum and semi-slum 
areas need to be cleared up; the city's municipal plant needs 
expanding; much can be done to improve the general appear- 
ance of the city; recreational facilities are not adequate. But 
these are problems that come with the rapid transition from a 
little town to a big city, and citizens are confident that the 
city's co-operative and progressive spirit will overcome the 
problems of today as it did those of yesterday. 

A city's personality, like a person's, is determined by the 
people, events, and problems which it has known and which 
have become a part of it. So it is with Winston-Salem. 

Salem was founded for religious purposes and religious 
freedom; today a deep religious atmosphere dominates com- 
munity life. Winston was founded for purposes of govern- 
ment, as a county seat; today the city possesses good city and 
county government and its citizens show a strong interest in 
municipal affairs. The early Moravian settlers were firm be- 
lievers in broad educational development and one of their first 
acts in building early Salem was the establishment of schools 
for boys and girls; today the Winston-Salem public school 
system is one of the finest in the state, and the city is rapidly 
becoming a center for higher education. Salem's settlers were 
hard-working, industrious, far-sighted men; one of Winston- 
Salem's characteristic traits is its progressive spirit. 

Winston-Salem is a city built by its own citizens through 
generations of work. The settlers of Salem and Winston were 
family men, home-loving people, who believed in making of 
their city a fit home for their children and their children's 
children. As a result, the children have stayed in the commu- 
nity to find opportunity and fortune. Old family names. 



226 Forsyth, a County on the March 

dating back for generations in many cases, are predominant 
in social and business life. The city is fortunate in that the 
large majority of its many industries were founded and built 
by local citizens and are still home-owned. The businessmen 
and industrialists of the community have consistently turned 
their energy and their money towards building their city. Its 
good roads, good government, good schools, did not come to 
it from outside sources or through lucky circumstances, but 
each had to be built carefully by men willing to work and 
to give. It has been said that if the amount of money that 
has been given in the city by private citizens for buildings, 
schools, churches, and social agencies and charities could be 
totaled, the sum would be staggering. Winston-Salem's citi- 
zens are community-minded and have been from the time 
the first careful plans were laid for the settlement of Salem. 
The city's future development promises to be tremendous. 
Its diversified industrial economy will fluctuate httle with 
changing conditions; it will become more well-rounded as it 
develops into an educational center. Its foundation is a rich 
heritage of tradition which teaches hard work, co-operation, 
faith in God, and faith in the ability of man. The Twin City 
will stand even more firmly and grow even stronger because 
of the two roots it has deeply embedded in the red Piedmont 
clay. 








.^^^^ 



THE CONTRIBUTORS 
INDEX 



The Contributors 

Adelaide L. Fries. Graduate of Salem Academy and College. 
M. A., Salem College; Litt. D., Moravian College, Beth- 
lehem, Pennsylvania; Doctor of Letters, Wake Forest 
College and the University of North Carolina. Archivist 
of the Moravian Church in America, Southern Province. 
Translator and editor of Records of the Moravians in North 
Carolina^ and author of The Road to Salem and other works. 

Mary Caelum Wiley. Graduate of State Normal College. 
Doctor of Education of the Woman's College of the 
University of North Carolina. For many years head of the 
English Department of the Richard J. Reynolds High 
School, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Since she has 
retired she has done much historical research as back- 
ground for her column "Mostly Local" in the Tuoin City 
Sentinel. 

Douglas LeTell Rights. Graduate of the University of 
North Carolina, Moravian Theological Seminary, and 
Harvard University. Doctor of Divinity, Moravian Col- 
lege, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. Pastor of Trinity Moravian 
Church, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. President of the 
Wachovia Historical Society. Author of The American 
IndiaJi in North Carolina. 

Harvey Dinkins. Graduate of Guilford College. On News 
Staff of the Journal and Sentinel since 1926. Farm Editor of 
the Winston-Salem Journal and Sentinel. Farm Service Di- 
rector of WSJS radio station. 

Chas. N. Sie^vers. Graduate of the University of North 
Carolina. Associate General Agent in Winston-Salem of 
the Security Life and Trust Company. President of the 
Winston-Salem Chamber of Commerce. 

229 



230 Forsyth, a County on the March 

Flora Ann Lee. Graduate of Meredith College. Director of 
Publicity of the A^'inston-Salem Chamber of Commerce. 

Joseph Wallace King. Portrait painter. Educated at the 
Corcoran School of Art, Washington, D. C, and at The 
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 



INDEX 



Abattoir, 206 

Abbotts Creek, 131, 134, 147 

Abbotts Creek Missionary Baptist 

Church, 134 
Abbotts Creek Primitive Baptist 

Church, 134 
Abbotts Creek Township, 12 
Accidents, 42, 47, no, 127 
"A City Founded upon Co-operation," 

196 
Act of Parliament, 1749, 4 
Acts of Assembly of North Carolina, 

8, 9.. 12. 13, i8, 22, 24, 25, 30, 39, 60, 

61, 91, 116 
Adams-Millis Corporation, 178 
Adams, Judge Spencer B., 156 
Affirmation of Allegiance, 39, 40 
Agricultural and Mechanical School, 

102, 103 
Agricultural Board, Forsyth, 165 
Agriculture, 146, 158, 159, 162, 163, 

165, 187 
Alamance River, N. C, 122 
Albea, Reverend W. W., 73 
Albertini, Reverend Johann Baptist, 

46 
Alexander Apartments, 92 
Alfalfa, 164 

Allen, Sidney E., 89, 98, 185 
Alspaugh, Reverend John, 72, 146 
Alspaugh, John W., 80, 81, 88, 102 
Alspaugh, Mrs. John W., 95 
Alta Vista, 201 
Altrusa, 222 

American Business Club, 222 
A. M. E. Zion Church, 78 
Anchor Store, 70 
Anderleigh, 201 
Anderson, Reverend Neal, 113 
Andrews, A. B., 157 
Anson County, 3, 4, 6 
Ante-bellum residences, 145, 146 
Apartment houses, 202 
Archive House, Salem, 44, 244 
Archives of the Moravian Church, 59, 

68 
Arden Farm, 131 
Ardmore, 201 

Ardmore Baptist Church, 201 
Ardmore Civic Club, 222 
Ardmore Congregational Christian 

Church, 201 
Ardmore Methodist Church, 201 
Ardmore Moravian Church, 201 
Arista Mills, 175 



Armfield family, 132 

Armory, loo 

Armstrong, John, 132 

Armstrong, Joseph, 132 

Armstrong, Colonel Martin, 38 

Army, United States, 22 

Arts and Crafts Association, 224 

Asbury, Bishop Francis, 133 

Ashe County, 22 

Asheville, 130, 154 

Assembly, Colonial, 4 

Assembly of North Carolina, 41 

Associated Charities, 106, ni, 112, 

217, 219 
Atkins family, 132 
Atkins High School, 207 
Atkins, Professor S. A., 102, 103, 104 
Atkinson, Senator, 23 
Atlantic Greyhound Lines, 212 
Auditor for Surry County, 41 
Augsburg Lutheran Church, 209 
Austria, 5 

Automobile Club, 221 
Avery, Isaac Erwin, 121 
Axson, William E., 80 
Aycock, Governor Charles Brantley, 

159 
Ayres, Thomas, 59 

Babcock, Charles H., 136 
Babcock, Mrs. Charles H. 

(Mary Reynolds), 136 
Bachmann, Johann Philip, 44 
Back-to-farm movement, 199 
Bagby, C. L., 106 
Bagge, Antoinette Louisa, 49 
Bagge, Charles Frederic, 47 
Bagge, Traugott, 7, 35, 36, 37, 39, 41, 

44 
Bahnson, Agnew H., Jr., 181 
Bahnson, Agnew H., Sr., 181 
Bahnson Co., 180, 181 
Bahnson, Frederic F., 181 
Bahnson, F. F., Jr., i8i 
Bahnson, Right Reverend George 

Frederic, 53 
Bahnson, Dr. Henry Theodore, 87, 

102, 159, 160 
Bahnson Humidifier Co., 181 
Bailey Brothers, 171 
Bailey, P. S., 117 
Bank agency in Salem, 47 
Bank clearings, 192 
Bank of Cape Fear, 47, 48, 182 
Bank of New Bern, 48 



231 



232 



Index 



Banner, Captain, 19 

Banner, Constantine L., 12, 59 

Banner, Henry, 136 

Banner, John, 10 

Banner, Lewis, 77 

Bannertown, 136 

Barbecue, 66 

Barber shops, 85 

Barclay, William, 127 

Barker Creek, 148 

Barringer, General, 86 

Barringer house, 85 

Barrow, Philip, 12 

Barrow, William, 60, 63, 80 

Barter, 34, 54, 65 

Bason, Giles, 80 

Bassick Co., 181 

Battle of the Horse Shoe, 151 

Beall, George H., and Co., 171 

Beard family, 132 

Bears, 143, 145 

Beaver Dam Church, 129 

Beaver Dam Creek, 129 

Bedford County, Tennessee, 21, 23, 24 

Beekeepers Association, 163 

Belews Creek, 131 

Belews Creek (settlement), 127, 128 

Bell, St. Paul's, 76, 77 

Bell Telephone system, 182 

Belo, Captain Alfred Horatio, 53, 66 

Belo, Edward, 52, 183 

Beloe's Creek, Beloos Creek, Bielus 

Creek, Blewers Creek, Belows 

Creek. See Belews Creek 
Belo Home, 52 

Belo (Boehlo), Johann Friedrick, 52 
Belo, Lewis, 52 
Belo's Pond, 89, no 
Benevolent Society, 92, 93, 94, 95 
Beroth, Jacob, 122 
Beroth, John, 124 
Best, Thomas T., 64, 80 
Bethabara, 7, 8, 30, 31, 34, 35, 121, 122, 

123, 125, 126 
Bethania, 7, 18, 31, 35, 51, 65, 123, 124, 

125, 128, 129 
Bethania church, 125 
Bethel, Joshua, 59 
Bethlehem, Pa., 5, 46 
Bevil, W. A., 90 
Bible, The, 29, 48 
Biblical Recorder, 75 
Bickett, Governor Thomas W., 157 
Bicycles, 85 
Bieffel, Henry, 124 



*'Big Meetings," 64 
Bitting, J. A., 81, 95 
Bitting, Mrs. J. A. (Louisa Wilson), 

88 
Bitting and Hay, 171 
Blackberries, dried, 158 
Blackburn, Captain, 19 
Blackburn, Dalton and Co., 171 
Blackburn, John, 67 
Blackburn family, 131 
Black family, 133 
Black Walnut Bottom, 123 
Blackwell, Miss, 112 
Blair, John Jay, 93 
Blair, William Allen, 103, 104, 149 
Blakeley, Captain Johnston, 22, 25 
Bleeding, 43 

Blount County, Alabama, 24 
Blue Ridge Mountains, 5 
Blum, David, 59 
Blum, Johann Christian, 47, 49 
Blum, Levi Vanniman, 62 
Blum's Almanac, 215 
Boarding School for Girls, Salem, 45 
Board of Aldermen, Minutes of, 83, 

84, 85, 100, 105, 106, 107, 108, 115, 

116, 117 
"Board of Provincial Elders of the 

Southern Province of the Moravian 

Church or Unitas Fratrum," 55 
Board of Trade, 98 
Bodenheimer family, 134, 135 
Boeckel, Frederick, 125 
Boeckel, John, 125 
Bohannon, Mrs. Elisa, 80 
Bohemia, 29 
Bon Air, 201 
Bonds, city, 88, no 
Boner, F. E., 81 
Boner, John Henry, 148 
Boner, John Wesley, 148 
Boner, Joshua, 53, 67 
Boner, Matthew, 66 
Boner family, 126 
Bonn, Doctor Jacob, 40 
Book Clubs, 222 
Books, 34 
Boone, Daniel, 122 
Bowling alleys, 220 
Bowman, Wyatt F., 183 
Bowman Gray Memorial Stadium, 

220 
Bowman Gray School of Medicine, 

208 
Boyer, Jack, 147 



Index 



233 



Boyer family, 126 

Boy Scouts, 218 

Boys Department, Y. M. C. A., 105 

Boys Schoolhouse, 44 

Bridges, 9, 13 

Brietz, Charles, 55 

Briggs, William C, 180 

Briggs-Shaffner Co., 180 

British troops, 40 

Broadbay Plantation in New England, 

8, 12, 126 
Broadbay settlement, N. C, 12. 

See also Friedland 
Broadbay Township, 127 
Brooks family, 128 
Brooks Ferry, 129 
Brookstown, 129 

Brothers House, 34, 36, 42, 43, 224 
Brown, George T., 173 
Brown, Reverend Henry A., 78 
Brown, John L., 59 
Brown, Major Thomas Jethro, 69, 

89, 105, 170, 203 
Brown, William L., 89 
Brown and Williamson, 171, 173 
Brown Brothers, 171 
Brown, Rogers and Co., 185 
Brown-Rogers-Dixon Company, 79 
Brown's Opera House, 105 
Browntown, 134 
Buckskin, 144 
Buena Vista, 201 
Buford, Charles, 82 
Bulitschek, Joseph, 35 
Bunker Hill Baptist Church, 134 
Bunker Hill Methodist Church, 134 
Burbank, William F., 97 
Buses, 211, 213 
Business and Professional Women's 

Club, 112, 222 
Butler, Marion, Sr., 156 
Butner, Albert I., 124 
Buxton, John Cameron, 76, 82, loi, 

104, 106, 107, 108, 183 
Buxton, Mrs. J. C. (Agnes Belo), 87, 

95 
Byerly, Harrison, 149 
Byerly, S. and Son, 171 
Bynum, Cotten and Co., 171 
Bynum, Reverend W. S., 76 

Cabbage, 144 
Cahoon, George W., 24 
Cain, Charles M., 117 
Calaboose, Winston, 63 



Calhoun, John Caldwell, 149 

Callaway, Elijah, 22, 23 

Calvary Moravian Church, 209 

Camel cigarettes, 172 

Camel City Coach Co., 211 

Campbell, Archibald, 133 

Candler, R. L, and Co., 171 

Capital Airlines, 213 

Captains Districts, 12, 19 

Carmichael Printing Co., 215 

Carnegie, Andrew, 106, 107 

Carnegie Library, 106, 107, 108, 109 

"Carolina," 3 

Carolina Hotel, 203 

Carolina Narrow Fabrics Co., 177 

Carolina Theatre, 203 

Carriages, and wagons, 169 

Carroll's Manor, Ind., 126 

Carter, Noah, 85 

Carter, W. B., Jr., 100 

Carteret, John, Lord, 3. 
See also Granville, Earl 

Castle, Anna, 112 

Catawba Indians, 122 

Cattle Breeders Associations, 163 

Centenary Church, Old, 73, 93, 104 

Centenary Methodist Church, 72, 73, 
203, 209 

Centennial of American Independ- 
ence, 71 

Centerville, 139 

Centerville Street, 155 

Central Hotel, 81, 98 

Chadwick family, 125 

Chamberlain, J. R., 147 

Chamberlain, Mr., 89 

Chamber of Commerce, 98, 99, 100, 
loi, 102, 103, 204, 219, 221 

Chapel Hill, N. C, 24 

Charles I, 3 

Charles II, 3 

Charles family, 134 

Charles store, 70 

Charleston, S. C, 34 

Charlestown, N. C, 139 

Chatham Building, 204 

Chatham Manufacturing Co., 182 

Cherokee Indians, 7, 45, 46, 122 

Cherry Street High School, 106 

Chestnut trees, 143 

Children's Home, Baptist, 73, 106, 219 

Chipman, Rachael, 134 

Chippewa Club, 65, 66 

Chitty family, 126 

Christmas Eve services, 210 



234 



Index 



Church of England, 4 

Churton, William, 5, 127 

City assets, 205 

City-County Health Department, 216 

City-County Planning Commission, 
204, 205 

City extension, 202 

City government, 205 

City Hall, 68, 102, 106, 203, 204 

City Hospital, 88, 200, 216 

City limits, 200 

City Market, 206 

City National Bank, 184 

"City of Churches," 209 

"City- of Industry," 169, 175, 182 

City planning, 200 

City street lights, 213 

City View, 138 

City View Men's Club, 222 

Civic clubs, 222 

Civic Orchestra, 224 

Civil War, 17, 50, 51, 53, 54 

Civitan, 222 

Clark, Judge Walter, 156 

Clark and Ford, 83, 185 

Clarv, W. S., 105 

Clary, W. S. and Co., 171 

Clay, Henry, 149 

Clemraons, Edwin T,, 130 

Clemmons, Peter, 130, 148, 149 

Clemmons (Town), 126, 130, 135, 148, 
149, 160 

Clemmons Civic Club, 222 

Clemmonsville Township, 12 

Cleveland, President Grover, 109 

Clinard, Dempsey B., 148 

Clothing, early, 144 

Cloverdale Apartments, 202 

Coan, George W., 184 

Coan, George W., Jr., 184 

Coleman, Frank A., 104 

College Village, 202 

Collins, D., 59 

Collins, James, 81 

Colonial Dames, 33 

Committee of Auditors for the Upper 
Board of Salisbury District, 41 

Committee of One Hundred, 206 

Committee on Public Solicitation, 219 

Committee on Trade and Transporta- 
tion, 102 

Community Chest, 218 

Concert Hall, 11 

Confectioneries, 81 

Confederate currency, 146 



Confederate Service, 3, 66, 67 
Confiscation Acts, 30, 39 
Congregation House, 34. 

See also Gemein Haus 
"Congregation of United Brethren of 

Salem and Its Vicinity," 55 
Congress, Continental, 38, 39 
Congress, United States, 61, 80 
Conrad, Augustus Eugene, 147 
Conrad, Christian, 146 
Conrad, Isaac, 146 
Conrad, Johann, 146 
Conrad, Leonard, 10 
Conrad, Dr. W. J., 104 
Conrad, W. J., Jr., 147 
Conrad family, 129, 146 
Consolidation of Winston and Salem, 

103 
Constable, 84 
Continentals, 38, 39 
Cook, Charles A., 157 
Cook, David, 59 
Cook, N. S., 63 
Cooley, Edward, 133 
Cooperative Club, 222 
Cooper family, 131 
Corbin, Sir Francis, 5 
Corn, 144, 160, 161, 165, 188 
Cornwallis, General Charles, 40, 41, 

123, 124, 127, 134, 150 
Cotton, 145, 169 
Cotton gin, 145 
Council of Garden Clubs, 222 
Council of Social Agencies, 218 
Country Club Estates, 201 
County. See Anson County, etc. 
County Commissioners, Forsyth, 10, 

11, 13, 52 
County lines, 4, 8 
Court days, 10, 64, 65 
Courthouse, Winston, 11, 59, 62, 66, 

67, 71, 74, 75, 204 
Courthouse Square, 59, 65, 71, 113, 204 
Courthouse Tract, 59 
Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, 

12, 60, 127 
Covered wagons, 114 

Cowan (Cowin), Elizabeth B. H., 23, 

24. 
Cowin (Cowan), William, 22 
Cowpox, 45 
Cows, 63 
Craft, Sara, 165 
Craft family, 134 
Crafton Heights, 201, 202 
Crater, Jacob, 125 



Index 



235 



Graver family, 126 

Crawford, R. B., 102 

Creation, The, 49 

Credit Women's Breakfast Club, 222 

Creek Indians, 46, 122 

Crews family, 133 

Crist, Anna Elizabeth, 49 

Crops, 188 

Crosland Louisa Maria (Shober), 76 

Cross Creek, 34 

Crutchfield, Paul W., 82 

Cummings, Captain, 128 

Currency, paper, 39 

Daily Journal, 214, 215 

Daisy, 138 

Dalton, J. Walter, 106 

Dalton, Rufus I., 106 

Dan River, 61 

Davidson County, 6, 12, 65 

Davie County, 9, 12, 13 

Davis, Reverend E. P., 104 

Davis family, 132 

Davis Military School, 92, loi, 106 

Day of Thanksgiving, 41, 42, 47 

Dean family, 128 

Declaration of Independence, 39 

Deems, Dr. Charles F., 73, 74 

Deep River, 131 

Deer, 143 

Democratic party, 82, 97 

Dennis, 135 

Department of Public Welfare, 219 

Depot Street School, 86 

Depression, 199 

Dinkins, Harvey, 229 

Dinkins family, 133 

Disher family, 133 

Dissenters, 4 

Dobb family, 129 

Dobson, Justice William, 39, 131 

Dobson's Creek Roads, 131 

Dobson's Tavern, 131 

Doctors, 36, 49 

Dogs, 63, 65 

Donnaha, 8, 135 

Doub, P. F., 97 

Doub family, 136 

Douglas Place, The, 132 

Douthit, Benton, 149 

Douthit, John, 126 

Douthit's Ferry, 135 

Dowdy, N. D., 106, 117 

Dozier, 139 

Dried fruit, 69 

Drug stores, 81 



Dudley, Guy R., 184 
Dull family, 134 
Dunkard church, 138 
Duplan Corporation, 177 
Durham County, 194 
Dwire, Mamie, iii 

Early Easter Service, 210 
East Winston, 106 
Eastern Air Lines, 212, 213 
Eaton, O, B., 106, 108, 117, 205 
Ebert, Eugene A., 104 
Ebert, Payne and Co., 171 
Ebert family, 126 
Ebert Street Extension, 148 
Edenton, 4, 5 
Education, 159. 

See also names of schools 
Edwards, George W., 117 
Elections, 128 

Elizabethtown, Canada, 19 
Elks Auditorium, 114 
Eller, Adolphus Hill, 103 
Ellis, W. B., and Co., 171 
Elrod, Christopher, 126 
Engine House (fire), 85 
England, 5, 29 
Episcopalians, 76 
Erosion, problem of, 164 
Exchange Club, 222 
Export Leaf Tobacco Co., 174 
Exposition, North Carolina, 159 

Family and Child Service Agency, 219 

Farm demonstration agents, 161 

Farmers Institutes, 159 

Farmers' Warehouse, 83, 84, 89 

Farming tools, 144 

Farms, 187, 188, 189 

Fayetteville, N. C, 34 

Fayetteville and Western Plank Road, 

147 
Federal Home Loan Bank, 184 
Fehr family, 127 
FeJdhausen, Heinrich, 122 
Ferebee, Reverend L. R., 78 
Ferrabe, J., 59 
Festival Opera Group, 223 
Fever, 5 

Fiedler, Peter, 127 
Field Engineering Co., 96 
Financial Institutions, 182-85 
Firebugs, 91 

Fire companies, 85, 90, 103 
Fire Department, 206 
Fires, 42, 47, 84, 85, 91, 92, 98, 103, 113, 

114, 125 



236 



Index 



Fireworks, 72 

First Baptist Church, 75, 104, 209 

First Baptist Church (Colored), 78, 
86 

First Federal Savings and Loan As- 
sociation, 185 

First Methodist Church, 72 

First Methodist Episcopal Church, 62 

First National Bank, 81, 88, 84 

First National Bank, Salem, 182 

First National Bank Building, 114 

First Presbyterian Church, 203, 209 

Fishel family, 126 

Fisher family, 126 

Flags, Confederate, 53 

Flax, 145, 169 

Florida, 3 

Flying Jennies, 85 

Flynt family, 130 

Flynt, William, 11 

Foard, H. L., 90 

Fogle, Augustus, 178 

Fogle Brothers Co., 178 

Fogle, Charles A., 100, 178 

Fogle, Christian H., 178, 183 

Fogle, Fred A., 117, 179 

Fogle Furniture Co., 179 

Foltz, Mrs. Henry W. 
(Caroline Johnson), iii 

Foltz, Peter, 125 

Foreign missions, 48 

Forest Hills, 201 

Forsith, John, 17 

Forsyth, Colonel Benjamin, 9, 10, 
17-25 

Forsyth, Bethemia Hardin, 18, 24 

Forsyth Country Club, 220 

Forsyth County, 3, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 17, 
29, 52, 66, 143, 144, 145. 158, KJQ, 
160, 162, 164, 165, 166, 190, 191, 192, 
194 

Forsyth County Centennial 
Committee, v 

Forsyth County farm, 165 

Forsyth County Farm Bureau, 163 

Forsyth County Tuberculosis Hospi- 
tal, 149 

Forsyth, Effie Jones, 18 

Forsyth, Elizabeth, 

(Mrs. James Forsyth), 17 

Forsyth, Elizabeth B. H., 20, 21, 22, 23 

Forsyth, Elizabeth Bostic, 18 

"Forsyth Grays," 66 

Forsyth, James, 17 

Forsyth, James N., 18, 22, 23, 24, 25 



Forsyth, Mary L., 18, 23 

Forsyth Pomona Grange, 163 

"Forsyth Rifles," 53, 66, 99 

Forsyth, Sally Almond, 18, 21, 24 

Forsyth Savings and Trust Co., 184 

Forsyth Singers, 224 

Forsythe, 80 

Fort George, Canada, 20 

"Fourteen Mineral Springs," 137 

Fourteenth Street School, 202 

Fourth House, The, 33, 224 

Fourth of July, 39, 71 

Foxes, 145 

Foy, J. O., 97 

Franklin, W. E., 108 

Fraternity community, 138 

Free postal delivery, 102 

French and Indian War, 7, 122, 136 

Frey, Christian, 125 

Frey, George, 125 

Frey, Peter, 125 

Frey, Valentine, 125 

Friedberg, 6, 125, 126 

Friedland, 8, 38, 126, 127 

Friendship Airport, 212 

Fries, Adelaide L., 229 

Fries, F, and H., 50, 175 

Fries, Francis, 10, 11, 12, 150, 51, 59, 175 

Fries, Francis H., 183 

Fries, Giersh and Senseman, 186 

Fries, Harry, 79 

Fries, Henry E., 99, 100, 135, 154, 159 

Fries, Henry W., 51 

Fries, John, 77 

Fries, John W., 98, 100, 181 

Fries, Lee Henry, 77, 79 

Fries Manufacturing and Power Co., 

13s 
Fries, Paulina, 77 
Fruit Fair, 103 
Fruit trees, 144 
Fulk, Margaret, 128 
Fulk family, 134 
Fulp (Volp), George, 128 
Fulp family, 132, 135 
Fulton, Robert, 133 
Fulton family, 131, 132 
Fungi of Lusatia, 46 
Furches, D. M., 157 
Fusion campaign, 156 

Gales, A. J., 90 
Gamble, Andrew M., 12 
Gannett, Frank A., 214 
Garden Clubs, 222 
Gardens, 144 



Index 



237 



Gas works, 175 

Gates County, 23 

Gemein Haus, Salem, 34, 35, 44, 45, 52 

Gentry family, 132 

Georgia, 30, 32, 41 

Germanton, 9, 18, 61 

Gibson, Isaac, 59 

Gilmer, J. E., 95, 98, 183, 185 

Gilmer, John L., 211 

Gilmer Brothers, 113 

Girl Scouts, 218 

Glenn, Robert Broadnax, 102, 103, 

104, 109 
"God's Acre," 224 
Golding, I., 59 
Golf, 220 

Gorrell, A. B., 80, 82, 83, 99 
Gorrell, Franklin L., 63, 67, 74, 75 
Gorrell, Ralph, Esq., 66 
Goslen, Junius Waitman, 70, 82, 89 
Goslen family, 126 
Goslen Publishing Co., 215 
Gourley, Robert, 75 
Grabs, Anna Maria (Wolsen), 124 
Grabs, Gottfried, 124 
Grabs, William, 124 
Grader, motor, 166 
Graff, Gertrude, 37 
Graff, Reverend John Michael, 36, 37, 

38,41 
Graham, William A., 65, 66 
Granville, Earl, 3, 4, 5, 30 
Granville County, 150 
Granville development, 201 
Gray, Emory, 203 
Gray, Eugene E., 82, 104 
Gray, Gordon, 98, 215 
Gray, James A., 86, 89, 108, 183 
Gray, James A., 181 
Gray, James A., Jr., v 
Gray, Mrs. James A. 

(Aurelia Bowman), 87 
Gray, Robert, 50, 59, 60, 63, 71, 73, 80 
Gray, Robert, Jr., 60, 71 
Graycourt Apartments, 202 
Gray family, 136 
Graylyn, 136, 209 
Green, John Peter, 127 
Greene, General Nathanael, 40, 41, 

124, 134 
Greenfield family, 132 
Greensboro, N. C., 96 
Greter. See Crater 
Griffith, John F., 82, m 
Griffith and Bohannon, 171 
Griffith family, 131, 132 



Grimsley, George A., 185 

Grist mill, 50 

Groceries and general merchandise, 

81 
Grogan, Annie, m, 112, 217 
Grogan, Martin, 80, 88 
Grubbs family, 133 
Grube, Reverend Bernhard Adam, 

121 
Guernsey cattle, 159, 160, 162, 166 
Guide Book of Western North 

Carolina, 81 
Guilford Battle Ground, 61 
Guilford County, 65, 131, 194 
Guilford Courthouse, Battle of, 40 
Guns, 169 
Guthrie, 138 
Guyer family, 132 

Hahn, George Frederick, 127 

Halifax Convention, 39 

Hall, Mrs. Mary, 80 

Hall, Willis E., Esq., 99 

Hall family, 131 

Hall of History, 130 

Hamilton family, 126 

Hamlen, Chesley, 98, 99 

Hamlen, Liipfert and Co., 171 

Hammack family, 133 

Handicrafts, 30, 32, 33, 40, 42, 52, 169 

Hanes. See also Hoehns 

Hanes, (town), 126, 137, 138, 176 

Hanes, B. F., 171 

Hanes, James G., 165 

Hanes, John W., 98, 102, 105, i75, 203 

Hanes, P. H. and Co., 171 

Hanes, Philip, 130 

Hanes, Pleasant H., 86, 89, 100, 175, 

203 
Hanes, Ralph P., 177 
Hanes Dye and Finishing Co., 177 
Hanes Hosiery Mills Co., 176 
Hanes Park, 206 
Hanover County, Virginia, 17 
Happy Hill, 77 
Hardware, 81 
Hardware, furniture, 181 
Harmon, Apollos, 131 
Harmon, Salome (Kerner), 131 
Harpeth, West Tennessee, 22 
Harrell, 80 

Harrell, Mrs. Anna, 80 
Harris, E. L., 105 
Harris, Mrs. J. J., 149 
Hartman, Adams, 125 
Hartman, George, 125 



238 



Harvey and Rintels, 171 

Hastings, Judge A. H., 112 

Hastings. John, 146 

Hauser, George, Sr., 124 

Hauser, John Henry, Esq., 22, 23 

Hauser, Martin, Sr.. 124 

Hauser, Michael, 12, 124 

Hauser family, 129, 133 

Hawkins, Caroline, 113 

Hawkins, E. L., 96 

Haw River, 4, 131 

Hay, 164, 188 

Haywood, Louise (Bahnson), 160 

Haywood, T. Holt, 131, 160 

Hayworth family, 134 

Hazard, W. P., 159 

Health, Public, 35 

Health Department, 216 

Heath, Sir Robert, 3 

Hege, Balthaser, 124 

Hege, Christian, 59 

Hege, Constantine A., 98, 100 

Hege, Edward, 68 

Hege family, 131 

Hein. See Hine 

Helsabeck family, 130 

Hendren, Mrs. S. S., 95 

Hendrix family, 132 

Henley family, 132 

Herbst, Heinrich, 35 

Hereford cattle, 162 

Hester family, 128, 133 

High Point, N. C, 51, 130 

High Point, Randleman, Ashboro, 

and Southern Railroad, loi 
Highways, Public, 63, loi, 127, 211 
Hill, Charles H., 92 
Hill, George Watts, 160 
Hill, W. P., 72 
Hillsboro, N. C, 39, 41 
Hillsboro Academy, 24 
"Hilltops House," 147 
Hine, Jacob, 127 
Hinshaw, George W., 51, 88, 89, 99, 

100, loi, 103, 203 
Hinshaw and Bynum, 185 
Hinshaw and Medearis, 83 
Hinshaw's Hall, 78 
Hodgin Brothers and Lunn, 171, 176 
Hodgin and Sullivan, 185 
Hoehns (Hanes), Marcus, 125, 130 
Hogs, 63, 64, 115, 116, 162 
Holder, Charles, 33 
Holder, Henry, 59, 63, 64 
Holder familv, 125 
Holland, Alfred, 75 



Index 

Holland, Reverend George W., 78 

Holland, Nannie E., 75 

Holmes, Governor Gabriel, 24 

Holstein-Friesian milk cows, 162, 166 

Home Demonstration, 159 

Home Moravian Church, 44, 209, 210, 

224 
Home Moravian Sunday School, 48 
Hood, Gurney P., 184 
Hood System Industrial Bank, 184 
Hook and ladder company, 89 
Hooper family, 132 
Hope, Indiana, 126 
Hope, N. C, 8, 126 
Hopewell Sunday School, 48 
Hopkins, P., 59 
Horses, 85, 90 

Hosiery, circular knit, 169, 177 
Hospital, public, 87 
Hotel Robert E, Lee, 89, 203 
House of Representatives, N. C, 22, 

23 

Houses, Salem, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 
43, 44, 48, 52; Winston, 59, 63, 65, 
82, 88, 106. 
See also Churches, Factories, etc. 

Howland, John, 134 

Huie family, 132 

Hulon Post Office, 148 

Humidifiers, 181 

Hunt family, 129 

Hunter family, 131 

Huntley, B. P., 179 

Huntley, B. F., Furniture Co., 179 

Hus, John, 29 

Hussite Wars, 29 

Idol, Barnett, 134 

Idol, Barnett, II, 134 

Idol, Jacob, 134 

Idol family, 133, 135 

Idols (flag-stop), 135 

Imperial Tobacco Co., 174 

Incinerator, 206 

Income taxes, 195 

Indera Mills Co., 177 

Indians, missions to, 32, 45, 46; 

mentioned, 134, 143. 

See also Catawba, etc. 
Indian Wars, 61 
Industrious men, 190, 191 
Influenza, 199 
Ingebretsen, Erich, 122 
Interest, legal rate of, loi 
Inventions, 189 
Iredell County, 6, 23 



Index 



239 



Jackson, General Andrew, 151 

Jocobs, Joe, 105 

Jacobs Building, 104 

James A. Gray High School, 207 

Jarvis, J. M,, 160 

Jean, Edmond, 133 

Jean, William, 133 

Jewelry stores, 81 

Johnson family, 131 

Johnston, Rev. Frontis H., 74 

John W. Hanes High School, 207 

Jones, B. Franklin, 134 

Jones, Caleb, 10 

Jones, Cox and Co., 171 

Jones, Mrs. E. B., 112 

Jones, Mrs. Permelia, 75 

Jones Building, 114 

Jones family, 131, 133, 134 

Jordan, F. M., 75 

Journal-Sentinel Building, 215 

Junior Chamber of Commerce, 221 

Junior League, 222 

Junior Woman's Club, 222 

Justice, J. R., 98 

Justices of the Peace, 11, 12, 18, 35 

Kalberlahn, Dr. Hans Martin, 121 

Kapp, Jacob, 122 

Kapp family, 125 

Kate Bitting Reynolds Hospital, 217 

Keiger family, 130 

Keith, Wiley F., 90, 92 

Keller, John, 59 

Kennedy, Jesse, 60, 75, 76 

Kerner, John F., 131 

Kerner, Joseph, 131 

Kerner, Julius, 132 

Kerner, Newton and Co., 171 

Kerner, Philip, 131 

Kerner, Robah B., 82, 91 

Kerner's Cross Roads, 131 

"Kerner's Folly," 132 

Kernersville, loi, 102, 131, 132, 146, 

178 
Kerr, Governor Elias, 155 
Kerr, Sarah F., 75 
Kester, John A., 177 
Kiel, University of, 46 
Kiger, A., 129 
Kiraberly Park, 202 
Kirael, Theophilus, 148 
King, Joseph Wallace, 230 
King, S., 23 
King's Daughters, Whatsoever Circle 

of. III 

King's Mountain, Battle of, 61 



Kiwanis, 222 

Kizer family, 130 

Kluge, Charles F., 11 

Knight, C. L., 98 

Koerner. See Kerner 

Konnoak Hills, 138, 201, 202 

Konnoak Hills Club, 222 

Kramsch, Reverend Samuel Gottlieb, 

45 
Kreeger family, 130 
Kremer, Adam, 124 
Kremser, Andreas, 43 
Krieger, Jacob, 128 
Kroehm. See Green 
Kuenzel, Frederick, 127 

Ladd, Constantine, 18 

Ladd, Elizabeth Bethemia Hardin, 

18, 20, 21 
Ladino clover, 164 
Lagenauer, Lewis, 133 
Lagenauer family, 133 
Lamp-lighter, 85 
Lanier, Rebecca, 150 
Lanius, John, 127 
Lasater, Robert E., 131, 212 
Lash. See Loesch 
Lash, Christian, 18 
Lash, Israel G., 12, 182 
Lash family, 130 
Laivs of the State of North Carolina 

passed by the General Assembly at 

the Session of 1848-49, 9 
Leak, Flora, 113 
Leak, Mrs. Mattie, 113 
Leak, T. F. Tobacco Co., 171 
Leak family, 132 
Lease systems, 31, 52 
Leazer, Augustus, loi 
Lee, Flora Ann, 228 
Lehman, Emma A., 125 
Leight, Edwin, 66 
Leipzig, University of, 37 
Lemay, Thomas J., 9 
Lemly, Henry A., 10 
Lemly, Laura, 76 
Lemly, William A., 183 
Lespedeza, 164 
Lewis (Ludwig), Peter, 128 
Lewis family, 132 
Lewisville, 133, 134 
Lewisville Civic Club, 222 
Lewisville Township, 8, 12 
Lexington, Battle of, 37, 38 
Liberty, 72, 139 
Liberty Street, 139 



240 Index 

Lightning rods, 43 
Lindbergh, Colonel Charles A., 212 
Lindsay family, 132 
Lineback, Joseph, 68 
Linville, George, 11 
Linville, R. F., 160, 161 
Linville, Thomas, Jr., 127 
Linville (Linval), Thomas, Sr., 127 
Linville, William, 127 
Linville family, 132 
Lions (luncheon club), 222 
Liquor problems, 63 
Lisher, Johannes, 122 
Litany, Moravian Church, 39 
"Little Red Man," 43 
Little Theatre, 223 
Little Yadkin, 13 
Livery stable, 81 
Livestock, 159, 160, 162, 188, 189 
Lockett, Vaughn and Co., 171 
Lockland Avenue, 148 
Loesch. See Lash 
Loesch, Herman, 122 
Loesch, Reverend Jacob, 121, 129 
Long, Vernon W., 97 
Long, Widow, 67 
Long family, 136 
Lords Proprietors, 3, 30 
Lott, Arthur Patterson, 74 
Lott, Flora Virginia, 74 
Lott, Henry Stokes, 75 
Lott, Hezekiah D., 74, 75 
Lott, Sarah Lena, 74 
Louse Level, 139 
Love, James, Jr., 133 
Love, James, Sr., 133 
Lovefeasts, 121, 210 
Love's Church, 133 
Lowery family, 132 
Loyalists. See Tories 
Lumber, 169 
Luncheon clubs, 221, 222 
Lung, Jacob, 122 
Lutherans, 48 
Lybrook, Philip, 55 
Lyman, Right Reverend 
Theodore Benedict, 76 

McBride family, 133 
McClellan, G. W., 165 
McClemment, J. H., 96 
McCuiston family, 132 
McGalliard, Ethel, 75 
McKnight, J. C, 79 
McNally family, 128 
McQueen, Alice, 161 



Maids of Melody, 224 

Mail, 33, 34 

Main Hall, Salem College, 52, 53 

Maline Mills, 177 

Manly, Mrs. Clement, 112 

Market prices, 62 

Markland family, 126 

Marshall, Reverend Frederic 

William, 30, 37, 40, 41, 45 
Marshall, Hedwig Elizabeth 

(von Schweinitz), 40 
Marshall, Colonel Henry, 60, 6i 
Marshall, Matt, 149 
Marshall, Nannie, 75 
Marshall family, 135 
Martin, Governor Alexander, 41, 43 
Martin, Mrs. Frank, 95 
Martin, James, 86 
Martin, Peter, 86 
Martin, Dr. Samuel, 66 
Martin, Mrs. W. T., 95 
Martin family, 133 
Marvin Chapel, 138 
Maryland, 5 
Maslin, Thomas, 106 
Masonic Temple, 114, 204 
Massachusetts, 37 
Mast, D. P., 80, 82, 95 
Masten, J. H., 90 
Masten, John, 59 
Masten, Colonel Joseph, 66 
Masten, Colonel Matthias, 66 
Masten Building, 114 
Mathes, George M., 88, 97 
Mathes, J. N., 64 
Mayflower, The, 134 
Maynard Field Airport, 212 
Mayo, Dr. A. D., 87 
Mayors, Winston, 60, 63, 64, 80, 82, 91, 

106 
Mecklenburg County, 194 
Mecum family, 133 
Meeting Halls, 32, 35, 44 
Meinung, Frank C, 186 
Meinung, Frederic Christian, 10, 

II, 12, 49, 59 
Meinung, Ludwig, 36 
Melrose, 201 

Memorabilia service, 210 
Memorial Coliseum, 221 
Memorial Industrial School, 219 
Memorial of Robah B. Kerner, 91 
Mendenhall, William, 80 
Mendenhall family, 126 
Mengle Co., 179 
Merchants and Traders' Union, 221 



Index 



241 



Merchants Hotel, 81 
Merkley, Christopher, 122 
Methodist Church, Walkertown, 133 
Methodist Episcopal Church, 

62, 64, 72, 73 
Methodist Episcopal Church 

(Colored), 77 
Methodist Episcopal Church, 

North, 77 
Methodist prayer meeting, first, 72 
Methodist Protestant Church, 62, 72 
Methodists, 72, 146 
Mexican War, 3, 9, 50, 66 
Meyer, Jacob, 35 
Mickey, S., 59 
Mickey Mill Road, 149 
Mickle, Mrs. Andrew, 112 
Mickle family, 129 
Midwives, 36 
Miksch, Matthew, 35 
Militia, 19, 38, 39 
Milk poal, 199 
Mill Creek, 146 
Miller, Mrs. Edith, 80 
Miller, Captain Frank P., 66 
Miller, Frederick, 127 
Miller, Harmon, 60 
Miller, Hermanus, 129, 130 
Miller, John J., 148 
Miller, John Thomas, 148 
Miller, P. C, 64 
Miller Airport, 212 
Miller family, 148 
Millinery establishments, 81 
Millis, J. H., 183 
Mineral Springs, 138 
Mineral Springs Civic Club, 222 
Mitchell, Nick, 184 
Mitchener, S. R., 161 
Mock, Philip W., 138 
Moir family, 133 
Montview, 201 
Moon, Owen, 214 
Moravia, 29 
Moravian Church, 4, 7, 8, 29, 30, 32, 

33, 44, 45, 55 
Moravian Church Home, 224 
Morehead, Reverend George, 79 
Morehead, John, 50 
Morehead, Governor John Motley, 

155^ 
Morris, Mr., 99 
Morris Chapel, 133 
Morris family, 133 
Morris Plan Bank, 184 
Morristown, New York, 19 



Moseley, Mrs. R. D., iii 

Moser family, 130 

Mt. Airy, 130 

Mt. Zion, Tennessee, 21 

Moving Picture houses, 114, 220 

Muddy Creek, 5, 6, 131, 146, 148 

Mueller, John, 125 

Mulberry Tree Society, 73 

Museum, Salem, 44, 53 

Music, 41, 43, 47, 223, 224 

Music Festival, 223 

Muskets, flint-lock, 144 

Muster, general, 64 

Mutual Broadcasting Co., 216 

Nading, N. W., 80 

Nading family, 133 

Nashville, Tennessee, 24 

Nashville Clarion, 22, 23 

National Advocate, 81 

National Broadcasting Co., 215 

National Federation of Garden Clubs, 

222 
Navy, United States, 22 
Nazareth Evangelical Lutheran 

Church, 129 
Neal family, 128 
Negroes, 48, 49, 54, 69, 77, 78, 79, 80, 

81, no, 129, 184, 191, 192, 201, 207, 

217, 218, 219 

New Bern, 19 

New Eden, 138 

New England Journal of Education, 

87 
New Orleans, 19 
New River, Virginia, 122 
New Shallowford Street, 51 
New York state, 19 
Newsome family, 134 
Nicholson, A., 59 
Niesky, Germany, 46 
Nissen, Harry Eugene, 90 
Nissen, J. S., 172 
Nissen, William M., 203 
Nissen Building, 105, 203 
Nissen Wagon Works, 65 
Noah Webster's Spelling Book, 43 
Norfleet, Charles M., 184 
Norfleet, James K., 108 
Norfleet, Mrs. James K., in, 112 
Norfleet, Captain M. W., 83 
Norfleet, Robert C, 105 
Norfolk and Western Railroad, 

133, 135, 210, 211 
Normal Air Co., 181 
Normal school, 87 



242 



Index 



Norman, Reverend Alfred, 72 

Norman, B. F., 104 

Norman, Reverend W. C, 72 

North Carolina, 3, 4, 30 

North Carolina Baptist Convention, 

208 
North Carolina Baptist Hospital, 

208, 216 
North Carolina Dairy Council, 165 
North Western North Carolina 

Railroad, 84, 155, 170 
North Wilkesboro, 130 
North Winston Men's Brotherhood, 

222 
North Winston Men's Community 

Club, 222 

Oakland Furniture Co., 179 

Occupation percentages, 192 

Odeltov^n, Canada, 20, 23 

Oehman family, 125 

Oesterlein, Elisabeth, 36 

Ogburn, Anna, 134 

Ogburn, C. J., 72 

Ogburn, Hill and Co., 171 

Ogburn, M. L., 171 

Ogburn, S. A., 171 

Ogburn Station, 138 

Ogdensburg, N. Y., 20 

Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, 68, 69 

O'Hanlon Building, 65, 114, 203 

Old Fort, 130 

Oldham, Edward A., 97 

"Old Hurrygraph," 82 

Old Jerusalem Church, 73 

Old Lexington Road, 138 

Old Salisbury Road, 148 

Old Town, 121. See also Bethabara 

Old Town Civic Club, 222 

Old Town Club, 137, 220 

Old Town High School, 125 

Old Town Road, 72, 82 

Operetta Association, 224 

Opiz, Charles, 124 

Optimist Club, 222 

Organs, 35, 44, 125 

Orrasby, W. P., 186 

Pace, E. M., 90 

Pace's Warehouse, 84 

Padget family, 126 

Pageant, George Washington, 199 

Palmer, General, 53, 54, 67, 68 

Panky, John B., 62 

Panther Creek, 133, 150 

Panthers, 145 



Paper, 169 

Paper mill, Salem, 43 

Parliament of Great Britain, 4, 38 

Pastures, 164 

Patterson, J. Lindsay, 98 

Patterson, Mary Louisa 

(Morehead), 74 
Patterson, Rufus Lenoir, 50, 66, 71 
Paylor, J. D., 98 
Payne family, 130 
Peddycord, Andrew J., 92 
Peddycord family, 126 
Pegram family, 128 
Pendleton, Henry, 86 
Pennsylvania, 4, 30, 32, 33 
Peoples Press, 62 
Pepper, John, 59 
Perkins, C. E., 205 
Perry, Lemuel, 24 
Person County, 23 
Pest House, 84 
Petersburg, Virginia, 34 
Petersen, Hans, 121 
Petree family, 130 
Pfaff, Isaac, 128 
Pfaff, Joseph, 128 
Pfaff, Peter, 128 
Pfafftown, 128, 129, 149 
Pfeil, Friedrich Jacob, 122 
Pfohl, Edward Alexander, 89, icxd 
Pfohl and Stockton, 69, 185 
Pfohl and Stockton's Hotel, 81 
P. H. Hanes Knitting Co., 137, 176 
Piedmont Aviation, Inc., 213 
Piedmont Federal Savings and 

Loan Association, 185 
Piedmont Festival of Music and 

Arts, 223 
Piedmont Leaf Tobacco Co., 174 
Piedmont Publishing Co., 98, 215, 

216 
Piedmont Warehouse, 83 
Pilot Club, 222 
Pines, 143 
Pinnix family, 132 
Pioneer settlers, 143, 144, 145, 190 
Plank Road, Fayetteville and 

Western, 51, 52, 65 
Plunkett family, 132 
Poindexter, H. D., 82, 185 
Police Department, 206 
Policemen, Winston, 60, 63 
Poor House of Forsyth County, 12 
Poor Peter's Call To His Children, 

148, 149 
Poplars, 143 



Index 



159 
1 60 



Population, Winston 
Populist party, 156 
Port of Entry, 195 
Post Office, Salem, 43 
Post Office, Winston, 55, 62 
Post Office Building, 114, 204 
Potatoes, 144 
Pottery, 169 
Pou, R. W., 161 
Poultry, 162, 163 
Praezel, Gottfried, 32 
Prather, Mary Catharina 

(Sussdorf), 95, 108 
Presbyterians, 74 
Preston family, 128 
Primrose, William S., 

Primrose Farm, 159, 

Prince Albert smoking tobacco 
Printing office, Salem, 47, 81 
Pritchard, Jeter C, 156 
Pritchard, Reverend T. H., 75 
Prohibition, 109 
Proprietors of Wachovia, 41, 5 
Public Recreation Commission 
Pulaski's Legion, 39 

Quail Roost Farm, 160 
Quakers, 75 
Quitrents, 5, 30 

Race relations, 199 
Radio shops, i8i 
Radio stations, 2x5, 216 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 144 
Raleigh, N. C, 24, 96 
Randolph County, 6, 65 
Ranke, Michael, 124 
Raper, Jasper, 147 
Raper, Wesley, 147 
Raper family, 134 
Ravines, 70 
Ray family, 132 
Rayle family, 129 
Ready-to-wear shops, 81 
Real Estate Exchange, 221 
Reconstruction, 54, 55 
Recreational facilities, 219 
Red Cross, 218 
Reddick, Joseph, 
Reed, Christian, 
Regulators, 132 
Reich, Edward, 59 
Reich, John, 12, 148 
Reich family, 126 
Reid, Jacob, 127 
Renegar, Henry, 63 



243 



I, 87, i86, 201 



172 



220 



23 
59 



Republican party, 81 
Reservoir, bursting of, no 
Retail Merchants Association, 

213, 219, 221 
Retail trade, 185, i86 
"Reuben Pinck," 132 
Reuter, Christian Gottlieb, 31, 35, 123 
Revolutionary War, 3, 8, 30, 37, 38-42, 

61, 150 
Reynolda, 136, 137 
"Reynolda House," 136 
Reynolda Park, 201, 220 
Reynolda Presbyterian Church, 137 
Reynolda Village, 137, 201 
Reynolds, Carrie Watkins (Fretwell), 

154. 157 
Reynolds, Charles A., loi, 154, 155, 

156, 157, 159 
Reynolds, H. H., 171, 173 
Reynolds, Richard J., 100, 136, 172, 

183 
Reynolds, Mrs. R. J. (Katherine 

Smith), 113, 136, 206 
Reynolds, William N., 131, 217 
Reynolds, Mrs. W. N. (Kate Bitting), 

217 
Reynolds Bros., 171 
Reynolds family, 134 
Reynolds Office Building, 203 
Reynolds Memorial Auditorium, 206 
Reynolds, R. J., Tobacco Co., 154, 171, 

172 
Rich, Mrs. D. (Carrie Watkins), 

95, III 
Richard J. Reynolds High School, 
Richmond, Old, 8, 9, 135 
Richmond, Virginia, 53, 154 
Richmond and Danville Railroad, 
Riddle family, 126 
Riding academies, 220 
Riggins, Henry L. (Mary Gorrell), 

III 
Rights, Reverend Christian Lewis, 72 
Rights, Douglas L., 229 
Rights family, 132 
Ring family, 132 
Riots, 199 

Rippel's Church, 48 
Roads, improved, 155, 159 
Roberts family, 132 
Robinson, Colonel James A., 81 
Rockford, 9, 151 
Rock House, The, 126 
Rockingham County, 9 
Roddick, Mrs. (Rominger), n2 
Rogers, James M., 98, 99, 100, 113 



206 



155 



244 



Index 



Rogers, Mrs. James M. 

(Mary Erwin), 88, iii 
Rogers, John, 24 
Rominger, Jacob, 127 
Rominger, Michael, 127 
Rondthaler, Rt. Rev. Edward, 49, 69, 

158,215 
Rosemont community, 139 
Rosenbacher Bros., 186 
Rotary Club, 222 
Rothroclc family, 126 
Rougemont, 160 
Rough and Ready Fire Company, 91, 

92 
Rowan County, 3, 6, 8 
Rural Hall, 6, 129, 130, 148 
Rural Hall Civic Club, 222 
Russell, Governor Daniel L., 155, 

156. 157 
Rye, 144 
Ryttenberg, A., 95 

Saddle and Harness shops, 81 

St. James A. M. E. Church, 79, 80 

St. James M. E. Church, 78 

St. Paul M. E. Church, 78 

St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 76, 

209, 215 
St. Philips Church, 49 
Salaries and wages, 84, 85 
Salem, 7, 8, 10, 11, 19, 29-55, 123, 130 
Salem, Old, 224 
Salem Academy, 52, 53, 54, 207 
Salem Brass Band, 66, 71, 96 
Salem Boys School, 224 
Salem Chapel Township, 7, 60, 135 
Salem College, 36, 45, 125, 207, 223 
Salem Congregation, lo, 11, 31, 35, 44, 

59 
Salem Cotton Manufacturing Co., 

49, 50, 175 
Salem Creek, 31, 67, 70, 131 
Salem diary, 68 
Salem Female Missionary Society, 

48,49 
Salem land, 10, ii, 31, 52 
Salem Steel Co., 181 
Salem Tavern, 224 
Salisbury, 6, 7 
Salt Street, 139 
Sanders, John, 59, 73 
Sapp family, 132 
Saunderson, Colonel, 68 
Saxony, 29 

Sayler (Seeler) family, 127 
Scales, Major James, 83 
Scales and weights, 83 



Scarborough, Edmund, Jr., 17 

Schmidt, Christopher, 124 

Schneider, Melchoir, 127 

Schneider, Peter, 127 

Schober, Anna Paulina, 48 

Schober, Emanuel, 47 

Schober, Gottlieb, 43, 48, 131 

School board, 106 

School buildings, 200 

School commissioners, Winston, 86, 87 

School committee, 11 

School for boys, Salem, 36, 43, 44 

School for girls, Salem, 36, 45, 52. 

See also Salem Academy and 

Salem College 
Schools, City, 206, 207, 208, 209 
Schools, Winston, ii, 36, 62, 76, 86, 

87 
Schouler, D. D., 186 
Schulz, Henry, 49 
Schuman, Dr. Frederic, 49 
Schweinitz, Amalia (Ledoux) de 

(von), 46, 47 
Schweinitz, Rt. Rev. Emil Adolphus, 

55 . 
Schweinitz, Rev. Hans Christian 

Alexander von, 46 
Schweinitz, Lewis David von (de), 

46, 47 
Schweinitz, Rev. Robert de, 53, 54, 67, 

68 
Scott, General Winfield, 65, 66 
Securit}' Life and Trust Co., 185 
Seiz. See Sides 
Sell family, 133 
Sell farm, 134 
Seminole War, 151 
Senate, N. C, 23 
Senseman, W. O. and Co., 186 
Sentinel Printing and Publishing Co., 

24 
Settlers, early, 6, 7, 121, 143, 144 
Sewage disposal plant, 205 
Seward, 139 
ShaflFner, Emil N., 180 
Shaffner, Henry F., 117, 183 
ShaflFner, Dr. John Francis, 186 
Shaflrner, Mrs. J. F. 

(Caroline Louisa Fries), 88 
Shaffner, William F., 180 
Shallow Ford of Yadkin River, 124, 

150 
Shamberger, Reverend, 79 
Shamel family, 136 
Shamrock Mill, 176 
Shaus, Philip, 124 
Shaw, Anna, 113 



Index 



245 



Sheep, 145 

Shelton, Dr. John H., 89 

Shepperd, Augustine Henry, 153, 154, 

157 
SheriflFs, 11 
Shober. See Schober 
Shoe and hat shops, 81 
Shore, Frederick, 124 
Shore, Henry, 124 
Shore, Henry Washington, 186 
Shore family, 132 
Shouse, Colonel Henry, 149 
Sickles, Major D. E., 80 
Siddall, Thomas, 59 
Sides, Michael, 127 
Sidewalks, 85 
Siewers, Charles N., 229 
Siewers family, 133 
Single Sisters, 35 
Sisters House, 36, 42 
Skin House, The, 46, 52 
Skyscrapers, 203 
Slater family, 126 
Slater Industrial Academy, 103 
Slater Industrial and State Normal 

School, 103 
Slater State Normal School, 207 
Slaves, 145, 150, 158 
Smalling, Samuel, 24 
Smallpox, 40, 45, 83 
Smith, Dave, 147 
Smith, Captain Henry, 38 
Smith, Samuel H., 82, 104, 186 
Smith family, 127, 134, 135 
Smith Reynolds Airport, 213 
Smith, W. F. and Son, 171 
Snider. See Schneider 
Snow, Ada, 113 
Sorosis Book Club, 222 
Southbound Railway Co., 51 
South Carolina, 4, 40, 41, 148 
Southern Bell Telephone Co., 214 
Southern Railway, 132, 135, 155, 210, 

2H 

Southern Silk Mills, 178 
Southern Steel Stamping Co., i8i 
Southern Tobacco Journal, 215 
South Fork Civic Club, 222 
South Fork Township, 12 
South Hall of Salem College, 45, 52 
South Salem, 202 
Southside, 201 
Spach, Adam, 7, 125, 126 
Spach, J. C, Wagon Works, 178 
Spach Wagon Works, 65 
Spangenberg, Bishop August Gottlieb, 
5, 123, 124 



Spanish Grove, 139 
Spaugh, Benjamin, 80 
Spaugh, Edward, 64 
Spaugh, Rufus A., 104 
Speas, Dr. D. C, 165 
Speas family, 136 
Spencer, Dr., 89 
Spoenhauer, Henry, 124 
Sprague, F. J., 96 
Springplace, Georgia, 45 
Sprinkle family, 131 
Spurgeon, Colonel, 134 
Square, Salem, 32, 71 
StaflFord, Andrew J., ii, 59, 63 
Stafford, John, 10 
Stafford, Zadock, 10 
Stafford family, 132 
Stage coach, 65, 130, 148 
Standard Building and Loan 

Association, 185 
Standpipe, no 
Stanleyville, 138 
Starbuck, Darius Henry, 59, 68, 80, 

95, 203 
Starbuck, Henry R., 103 
State Bank, The, 48 
State theatre, 70, 114 
Staub, A., 66 
Stauber, Christian, 125 
Stauber family, 130 
Steiner, Abraham, 11 
Steiner, Reverend Abraham, 49 
Stepping stones, 85 
Stevens, R., 98 
Stewart family, 132 
Stewart-Warner Co., i8i 
Stockton, Joseph H., 100 
Stockton family, 132 
Stokes County, 3, 9, 10, 12, 17, 18, 20, 

22, 52, 61, 65, 133 
Stoneman's Brigade, 53, 67 
Store, Salem, 34, 35, 36, 40, 47 
Stores, Winston, 60 
Storms, 128 
Story, Caleb, 131 
Strader family, 128 
Streetcars, 92, 96, 97, 106, 154, 213 
Street lights, 70, 85, 95, 96 
Street paving, 213 
Streets, Salem, 11, 31, 47, 50, 51, 59, 

66 
Streets, Winston, 11, 51, 59, 60, 62, 64, 

69, 70, 72, 82, 89, 113, 114, "5 
Strup, John, 124 
Strupe, Luther, 160 
Strupe family, 131 
Stultz family, 129 



246 



Index 



Stumptovvn, 139 

Suburban developments, 200, 201 

SulH\'an and Bell, 60 

Sullivan famil}', 133 

Summer School of Opera, 223 

Summit School, 136, 207 

Sunday Journal and Sentinel, 98 

Sunday Schools, 48, 49, 130 

"Sunny Acres," 134 

Sunnyside, 139 

Sunnyside Choral Club, 224 

Sun-Waugh Civic Club, 222 

Supreme Court of N. C, 156 

Surry County, 3, 8, 9, 10, 12, 13, 41, 61. 

129, 150 
Susdorff, Frank Leopold, 89 
Sutton, Reverend A. B., 76 
Swaim, Reverend W. E., 104 
Swaim family, 127, 134 
Swimming pools, 220 
Swords, 22, 23, 25, 61 

Tailor shops, 81 

Tamworth boars, 162 

Tanneberger, David, 44 

Tanyard, 35 

Tar Branch, 31 

Tavern, Salem, 35, 39, 42, 43, 66 

Tavis, John D., 80 

Taxable property, 193, 194 

Taxes, 8, 18, 40, 207 

Taxi-cabs, 213 

Taylor, Collins, 185 

Taylor, Jacquelin P., 174 

Taylor, William B., 174 

Taylor Bros., 94, 171, 174 

Teague, Elijah B., 147 

Teague, Dr. M. E., 147 

Teague family, 134 

Teaguetown, 134 

Telephone Company, 105 

Tennessee, 21, 23 

Tesch family, 126 

Test Oath, 38 

Textile industry, 32, 50, 137, 169, 175, 

176, 177,. 178' 
Thanksgiving days, 93 
Thomas, Hezekiah, 60 
Thomas, H. K., 80 
Thompson, Dr. V. O., 186 
Three-fold tax in lieu of military 

service, 38 
Tiersch, Reverend Paul, 35, 37 
Timber, 143 

Timberlake, Judge E. W., 157 
Tinware and stoves, 81, 169 
Tiretown, 138 



Tise, Jacob, 59, 63, 80, 185 
Tobacco, 35, 80, 83, 165, 169, 170, 171, 

172, 173, 188, 189, 190, 192, 193 
Tobacco Association, 99 
Tobacco Board of Trade, 221 
Tobacco Brand Directory, 171, 172 
Tobacco factories, 72 
Tobacco market, 114 
Tobaccoville, 136, 148, 160 
Tomlinson, Julius L., 87, 109 
Tories, 38, 40, 128, 150, 151 
Town Commissioners, Winston, 63, 

80, 90 
Town Committee, Salem, 35 
Town Fork of Dan River, 7 
Town Fork Road, 132 
Townships, 7, 12 
Trading area, 186, 187 
Trading Path, 5 
Train, the first, 70, 71 
Transou, Julius A., 149 
Transou family, 125 
Transportation, 34, 210 
Triebel, Christian, 36 
Tryon, Governor William, 123, 132 
Tuberculosis Sanatorium, 217 
Tucker, Ann, 133 
Tucker, Thomas, 133 
Tucker family, 135 
Turnips, 144 
Tuscarora Indians, 5 
Tuttle, Elizabeth, 161 
Tuttle family, 130 
Twin Castles Apartments, 202 
Twin City Club, 220 
Tivin City Daily, 97 
Tivin City Daily Sentinel, 97, 214 
Twin City Golf Club, 220 
Twin City Hospital, 87, 88 
Twin City Hospital Association, 87, 

88, 216 
Twin City Sentinel, 98, 104, 214, 215 
"Twin City," The, 55, 97, 226 
Two-Story-House, The, 32, 35, 36 

Underwear, knit, 169, 176 
Union Bus Terminal, 52, 203, 212 
Union Cross, 134, 135, 146, 147 
Union Cross Moravian Church, 134 
Union Railroad Station, 113, 115 
Union Republican, 70, 82, 89, 90, 96, 

98, 99, 100, 101 
Union Ridge, 138 
Unique Furniture Makers, 178 
Unitas Fratrum. 

See Unity of Brethren; 

also see Moravian Church 



Index 



247 



United States Government, 45 
Unity of Brethren, 29, 30, 37 
University of North Carolina, 24, 154 

Valley View, 139 

Vance, Horace H., 180 

Vance, J. Addison, 180 

Vance, Governor Zebulon Baird, 53 

Vance family, 132 

Vance, J. A., Co., 180 

Vance and Ring Co., 178 

Van Hoy family, 133 

Vaughn, E. D., 117 

Vaughn, T. L., 83, 95, 183 

Vaughn, T. L., and Co., 171 

Vaughn and Pepper, 89 

Vaughn and Prather, 82 

Vest, John P., 59, 62 

Vienna, 139 

Vierling, Dr. Samuel Benjamin, 44, 45 

Virginia, 3, 4, 17, 40, 61, 66 

Vital statistics, 102 

Vogler, Alexander Christopher, 59 

Vogler, Elias A., 139 

Vogler, Philip Christoph, 127 

Vogler, John, 59 

Vogler, William T., 186 

Volk. See Fulk 

Volp. See Fulp 

Vorsteher Haus, 44. 

See also Archive House, Salem 
Voyages, 46 

Wach. See Salem Creek 
Wachau, Der, 5 
Wachovia Bank Building, 203 
Wachovia Bank and Trust Co., 59, 

114, 183, 184 
Wachovia Historical Museum, 224 
Wachovia Historical Society, 44, 53, 

130 
Wachovia Loan and Trust Co., 183 
Wachovia National Bank, 89, 183 
Wachovia Tract, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 29, 30, 

31 
Waddill, John D., 135 
Wagner, Hans, 121 
Wagner, Sam, 132 
Wagner, Wagoner, Waggoner 

family, 133, 134 
Wagon and buggy shops, 8i 
Wagoner, Joseph, 59 
Wake County, 194 
Wake Forest College, 137, 207, 208, 

209 
Waldoboro, Maine, 8 
Walgreen's Drug Store, 204 



Walk, Martin, 125 
Walker, R., 59 
Walker, Robert, 132 
Walker Bros., 171 
Walker Creek, 132 
Walker tobacco factory, 92 
Walkertown, 6, 132 
Walkertown Men's Club, 222 
Wallburg, 148 
Walls, Luther, 80 
Walnut Cove Road, 149 
Walser, F. T, 82 
Warehouse, tobacco, 69, 83, 89 
War of 1812, 3, 9, 17, 19, 46, 47 
Warren County, 157 
Washington, President George, 43, 

44, 131, 224 
Waterworks, 31, 43, 88, 89, no, 200, 

205 
Watson, Cyrus B., 64, 102 
Waugh, Jesse A., 12, 59 
Waugh family, 139 
Waughtown, 77, 79. i39, 202 
Waughtown-Clemmons Road, 138 
Weather statistics, 102 
Weave house, 42 
Weavil family, 135 
Webb, Miss Emily, 67 
Webb, Garland E., 82, 106, 117 
Weekly Gleaner, 215 
Weekly Press, 66 
Weisner family, 126 
Wells, Reverend Isaac, 79 
West Bend, 133, 134 
West End School, 86, 87, 93, 109, 115 
Western Electric Co., 50, 181 
Western Sentinel, 81, 88, 97, 214 
West Highlands, 201, 202 
Westmoreland family, 130 
Weston, 138 
Weston Homes, 202 
Westover, 201 
West Salem Civic Club, 222 
Westview, 201 

Wharton, Dr. Alexander, 148 
Wharton, Catherine E., 74 
Wharton, Captain Rufus W., 53, 66 
Wheat, 144 
Wheeler, Adelaide Matilda (Shober), 

Whicker family, 133 

Whig party, 65, 66 

Whipping post, 10, 11, 63 

Whitaker, W. A., 86, 95, 99, 100, 102, 

109, 171, 203 
White, John H., ii, 59 
White, J. L., 64, 80 



248 



Index 



Whitehead, Zollicoffer, 97 
Whiteview, 201 
Whitman, "Rabbit," 139 
Whittington family, 132 
Whitworth, Edward, 17, 21 
Whitworth, Elizabeth, 21 
Whitworth, John, 2i 
Widows House, Salem, 52 
Wilburn, Reverend Andrew, 77 
Wiley, Calvin H., 86, 87 
Wiley, Mrs. C. H. (Mittie Towles), 

94, 95 
Wiley, Mary Galium, 229 
Wilkes County militia, 40 
William and Mary Apartments, 202 
Williams, Dr. Alexander, 152 
Williams, Fannie, 151 
Williams, John, 151 
Williams, Joseph, 150 
Williams, Joseph, II, 151 
Williams, Lewis, 152 
Williams, Nathaniel, 150 
Williams, Nathaniel, II, 150, 151 
Williams, Nicholas Lanier, 152 
Williams, Rebecca, 151 
Williams, Rebecca (Lanier), 150, 151 
Williams, Robert, 151 
Williams, S. Clay, 131 
Williams, Thomas Lanier, 152 
Williamson, R. L., 173 
Williamson, T. P., and Co., 171 
Williamson Tobacco Co., 171 
Williard family, 127, 135 
Willis, Meade H., 180 
Wilmington, N. C, 22, 47 
Wilson, Edgar Henry, 75 
Wilson, Elizabeth, 74 
Wilson, Josephine Elizabeth, 75 
Wilson, N. C, 87 
Wilson, N. S., and T. J., 172 
Wilson, Peter, 50 
Wilson, Peter A., 80, 82 
Wilson, R. J., 89 
Wilson, Thomas J., 11, 59, 67, 74, 75, 

80, 82, 102 
Winston, 10, 11, 31, 59-117 
Winston, Joseph, 22, 23 
Winston, Major Joseph, 22, 61 
Winston Electric Light and Motive 

Power Co., 95, 96 
Winston Leader, The, 82, 97 
Winston Leaf Tobacco and Storage 

Co., 174 
Winston-Salem, 55, 97, 103, 106, 116, 

123, 199-226 



Winston-Salem Building and Loan 

Association, 185 
Winston-Salem Foundation, 212, 219 
Winston-Salem High School, 204, 206 
Wtnston-Salcm Journal, 98 
Winston-Salem Journal Co., 214 
Winston-Salem Railway and 

Electric Co., 96 
Winston-Salem Sentinel, Inc., 214 
Winston-Salem Southbound Railway, 

138, 211 
Winston-Salem Street Railway Co., 96 
Winston-Salem Teachers College, 

103, 104, 207 
Winston-Salem Workshop, 224 
Winston Water Co., 88 

Wolf familv, 136 

Wolfe, Gilmer, 184 

Wolves, 121, 145 

Woman's Auxiliary, Y. M. C. A., 105 

Woman's Club, 222 

Woman's College, U. N. C, 223 

Woman's Improvement League, 115 

Woman's Missionary Society, 49 

Wood, W. W., and Co., 172 

Woodworking industry, 178 

Wood yard, municipal, 199 

Wool, 145 

Wool mill, 50, 51, 77 

World War I, 157, 199 

World War II, 199, 200 

Wright, Alfred, 85 

Wright-Hughes Tobacco Co., 174 

WSJS, radio station, 215, 216 

WTOB, radio station, 216 

Yadkin County, 13, 134 
Yadkin River, 4, 5, 7, 9, 12, 13, 124, 
131, i33i 135, 145, 147, 148, 150, 154 
Yarborough, Amos, 80 
Yauncey, 80 
Yontztown, 138 
Yorktown, surrender at, 41 
Young, Captain E. F., 98, 100, loi 
Young family, 133 _ 
Young Men's Christian Association, 

104, 105, 217, 218 

Young Women's Christian Associa- 
tion, 106, 112, 113, 203, 218 

Zevely, Van Nieman, 175 
Zimmerman family, 126 
Zinzendorf, Nicholas Lewis, Count, 

5, 29 
Zinzendorf Hotel, 92, 212 






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